10 inventions changed the world
The history of the wheel is lost in centuries, like the ancient wheels themselves, – who and when invented this is the greatest miracle of engineering thought, is unknown. Certificates of first wheels from a solid piece of wood (lighter with the knitting appeared much later) belong to the territory of modern Slovenia. At least 20 km south of Ljubljana found ancient wooden wheel, which is about 5350 years old. Scientists have determined that it was once part of the cart.
Wooden wheels a little later dating found in Syria, on the territory of the former Mesopotamia. Some of the most ancient in this region are found during the excavations of the settlement of al-Hasek, and dated the XXXIII-XXXII centuries to n. NS. It seems that the wheels in Mesopotamia and Europe appeared almost simultaneously. Many scientists, however, believe that in the cradle of civilization, mesopotamia, they still arose before.
Wheel – this is the basis of transport: it became easier to transport people and goods, and also improved the tactics of warfare – battle chariots appeared.
IV-II millennium BC. NS.: Potter’s wheel
In Mesopotamia, as well as almost simultaneously in Egypt and India in the IV-II millennia BC. NS. There was a potted circle, an impossible wheel without the invention. First, a manual circle appeared, and then the foot. The latter consists of a vertical shaft and two disks – at the top and bottom. On the top potter formulates clay, and the bottom pushes the legs to rotate the design.
The invention of the potter circle turned the world at least the appearance of the wheel and wheel transport. Now the manufacture of dishes could be put on the flow, which led to its reduction and trade development.
Interestingly, in Russia a pottery circle, which was called grinding, appeared quite late – only to the IX-X centuries.
105 year: paper
Papyrus, Parchment or Beresto Humanity knew from ancient times. But the paper in her classic version appeared much later. And although something similar to it has long been done in China, but everything was not that: "Paper" from hemp easily nodded, from bamboo – it was heavy, and from silk – felt dear. The invention of paper close to our understanding of this word is attributed to the Lubber of the Han Empire named Tsai Lun, who was instructed to bring order in the "Paper Industry". And he brought. And helped him in this. OSS.
The observation official noticed that the material from which the insects are wound their nests are light color, is durable, easy and not wet from rain. It also determined its composition: wood, vegetable fibers and saliva OS, which has water-repellent properties. Having spent hundreds of experiments, resourceful Cai Lun came to the conclusion that a similar mix can be obtained from the cortex of a tute tree, hemp light, vet, fibers of mulberry and wood ash. Mix everything, and then, as in famous advertising, just add water. The resulting "porridge from the ax" LUN laid out on a sieve, dried in the sun, and then smoothed with stones using stones.
IX century: powder
The substances from which the powder consists, were known in China in antiquity. Thus, the inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom used sulfur and nitrate for the preparation of drugs from the middle of the i century. NS. With such mixtures, Chinese monks and alchemists tried to open the elixir of immortality, and opened gunpowder. By the way, the word "Pinyin" ("powder") and translates from Chinese: "Fire of medicine" – for the burning properties of the composition. For the first time, the Taoist text of the middle of the 9th century Zhenyuan Miaodao Yaolüe mentions. Already soon the composition guessed to apply on the battlefield, and not in the abode of the ECClap. As well as on the squares during the holidays. After all, thanks to powder in the XII century, Fireworks were invented in the same China. And also – early samples of firearms, about the role of which is not necessary for history and talk: thanks to new ways to conduct a battle, the world map corresponded hundreds of times.
XVII century: steam engine
The first steam engine – the heat engine of external combustion – appeared in the XVII century. It was built by a French mathematician and physicist Denis Papen. It happened in 1690.
The steam engine Pappen was a cylinder with a piston, which was raised under the influence of hot steam, and lowered through the pressure of the atmosphere after thickening spent steam. As a result, the engine performed a good job due to heating and condensate. And although the basic elements of the design of the Paper suggested the famous German Mathematics of Leibniz, the French inventor gathered everything together and first applied a safety valve for his engine.
All this, it would seem that the simplest design was one of the pillars of the industrial revolution – thanks to her plants, mills and factories received independence from the energy of water and wind. There were steamers and locomotives, and behind them the biggest ships in the world. And although over time steam machines ousted internal combustion engines, we still surround the power of steam. For example, it is widely used on many modern power plants.
XIX century: electric light bulb
Ways of an ordinary light bulb in your chandelier are non-evaporated as the history of its creation. Because she is a real "Child Shelf": she has many creators, including our compatriots.
It all started in 1840, when the British astronomer missed the electric current through a platinum wire placed in a glass cylinder, and found that it glows.
Then there was a Russian scientist Alexander Milashenko, who in the same year began the development of coal filament. Then – American John Starr, who received a patent for an electric pump with coal thread in 1844. And it started: the invention was modified more than once, but still the light bulb for those years worked badly and the fact and the case of the brave. It is not surprising that the race began among inventors – who will first make a durable light bulb.
One of the first to the "Finishi" came the Russian engineer Alexander Lododagin, who received a patent for the nithe lamp in 1874. And only then, already in 1879, American Thomas Edison created a lamp with a service life of 40 hours. But our scientist did not give up and in the 1890s came up with several types of lamps with tungsten threads and molybdenum, and he also guessed to twist them in the form of a spiral, so that the lamp shine brighter, and pump out the air to shine longer.