Olavinlinna, like any other old fortress, suggests the long past. Her thick stone walls keep a lot of legends and believes, stories about wars, peace treaties and secret conspiractions.
In 1323, when Finland was already part of the Swedish kingdom, Sweden with the Novgorod Principality was concluded by the Orekhovetsky peace treaty, according to which the Eastern Border was held in the Savolax region (Savonlinna). Only now the clear distinction was designated only on paper, and this naturally gave rise to military shocks.
According to the same contract on the Karelian Isthmus on both sides of the border, the construction of fortresses was prohibited: this area was to remain a demilitarized. However, in the middle of the XV century, Novgorod joined the Moscow principality, and unexpectedly increased the power of the neighbors found the Swedes who had a single fortified castle in the Russian border, surprised and forced them to violate the terms of the transaction ..
Danish Knight Eric Axelsson Tott (Finnish – Eeric Axelinpoyek Tott), which occupies a part-time position of the chief of Vyborg Fortress, decided to take urgent measures to strengthen the East Section of the Swedish Border and build an additional castle to protect the frontiers and an inland water shopping path. In 1475, according to his decree on the rocky island in the Cureinsali Strait between the lakes of Hauques and Pichlaques began to be built named in honor of the patron saint of all Knights of the Catholic Holy XI century Olaf (Olavvi) Fortress Nusott (later Neeslot, then OlafSborg, and now Olavinlinna).
The grown originally wooden walls were laid out only two years, after which they were disassembled and erected new – stone. The resistance of the local population to the construction of the castle in these parts was great, so all the work was carried out under a strong Swedish convoy, which did not prevent common people to drown a barge with construction materials. These happened "Pirate" Raise with the active support of the Russian state, because the castle was built on Russian territory – 5 kilometers from the Swedish border.
Throughout its history, Olavinlinn has repeatedly passed from the Swedes and Finns to the Russians and back (already in 1495 the fortress was subjected to the first siege of the Russian troops). Yes, and built it alternately: then some, then others. For example, in 1742, Olavinlinna was taken by Russians and became part of the Russian defense system in the West. Then the work was led by Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, thanks to which the wells appeared on the island with drinking water and new bastions, and the old buildings, dreamed of time and battles, were demolished.
On the construction of the fortress, stones were overlooked from all over Finland. The first to appear the main fortress building with three round towers (their form indicates that they are erected in the era of firearms). Today only two of them survived – the bell with a clock and church. The first tower there were barracks and ancase with embrasures for guns. The second was the castle church. The third floor of this tower was residential, as well as the basement, in which the coat of archer Eric Totta was preserved before our time. Nearby located entrance to the castle dungeon. Here at the times of Swedish government held state criminals. In 1870, after the fortress went to Russia, a niche with skeletons stamped in them were found in the dark walls. The foundation of the Third Tower (St. Earrika) was so harping that she collapsed at the beginning of the XVIII century.
On the deep conviction of the Finnish and Swedish defenders of Olavinlinna, almost the main role in the inaccessibility of these high bastions was not at all what the dark waters of Saimaa were played around. The rest of the inhabitants were guarded by black sheep, which were grown specifically for the holiday table on July 29 – the Day of St. Olavvi. One of these barres, as the legend says, saved the fortress from the attack. He climbed onto the wall and became so terrible to knock the horns that the enemies were frightened, having accepted him for an unclean power, and left, not Solono Bread. By the way, the last of the Baran of Olavinlinna did not hit the table, and in 1728 fell from the wall and drowned.
For many years, Olavinlinna was a stumbling block. Until the early XVIII century, the castle was considered a Swedish outpost on the eastern border. In 1714 (during the Northern War), the fortress after a long siege was taken by Russian troops, which kept in it until 1721. After the conclusion of the Netadian peace treaty, the castle was again departed to Sweden. As a result of the Russian-Swedish War, 1741-1743 and the signing of the Abossky World Nastallot Castle (Olavinlinna) began to belong to Russia, and from that time for almost 100 years there was a Russian garrison.
The fortress has lost its military importance in 1809, when Finland became the autonomous principality as part of the Russian Empire. Until 1847, the military remained in these walls, and after 1850 the structure was used as a prison for several years. In the 1860s, two strongest fires badly damaged the fortress walls. Olavinlinna finally returned to Finland only in 1917, when the country received independence.
Captain’s daughter in Finnish
Do you live in the fortress of ghost, unknown. But, probably, could live if the story, which the Finnish guides told the tourists with incomprehensible pleasure, was true.
… When in the XVI century, Olavinlinna was in siege, and for eight months, Russian troops stood at the fortress walls, people inside suffered from hunger and deprivation. However, bodily flour did not interfere with the daughter of the commandant of the fortress to rise spiritually and love with all his heart. The subject of his passion is the trusting Ingnel chose one of the occupiers – officer from Siberia. They met every week, on Wednesdays. Usually the girl with secret, having agreed with the guard at the gate, chose outside the fortress. On the territory of the enemy, they were waiting for oaths in eternal love and dreams of the future. But somehow once in the tragic chance, the guard did not turn out at the gate. An impatient girl decided to act independently: I pressed the secret lever – and the gate opened. About her act immediately was reported to a rigorous father (according to the approval of excursions, an insensible bureaucrat). Not so much, opened Ingel in front of his parent’s parent. And he did not believe her daughter and decided that she simply wanted to pass by Olavinlin the Russian. In anger, he ordered livelihood to climb a native child in the wall. What was done.
Time passed, and on the site of the death of unfortunate rose rowan. White flowers symbolized innocence, and red berries – bitter fate. Ryabina Olavinlinna became such a well-known that in 1950 there was a singing in the ballad. And although the tree itself is no longer, the legend of unfortunate love and a cruel parent is still transmitted from the mouth to the mouth, from generation to generation.
Opera on Nature Low
Now there is a museum in the fortress, and excursions are held all year round. Every year there are up to 170 thousand visitors. And in the summer, Guests on the famous Opera Festival come from all over the world in Olavinlinna, who owes the Finnish singer Aino Act / Aino Ackte.
In 1907, when Aino was in Savonlinna, she suddenly visited the idea of organizing in this wonderful place of musical holidays. Classic opera in real historical scenery on the lap of nature – what can be more beautiful and romantic?! The first festival took place in the summer of 1912. The singer fulfilled his promise to make Olavinlinnu by the Center for Opera Art: For five years, four Finnish operas were presented here and only one foreign one – "Faust". And then the music of the Smallkla. And almost forty years in the fortress silence reigned.
The opera festival was revived when the courses of singers began to be held in these walls. July 16, 1967 their director proposed students to fulfill in the fresh air "Fidelio" Beethoven. The success was gradio!
AIO Act assumptions were true: the Opera Festival in Savonlinna became one of the most famous events in the world of opera art. Nowadays, he passes for a whole month, and the number of attendants reaches 60 thousand people!