Ancient Ephesus ; Crossroads of civilizations
You appreciate an antiquity atmosphere and plan to travel to Turkey? Then the point of your route must be Ephesus ; He will definitely disappoint you. Here, in the territory of the once small Asia, and now modern Turkey have preserved the largest old-rod ruins in the world.
History of Ephesus
Ephesus, one of the most visited sights of Turkey and one of the oldest cities in the world. Once he was a big and influential port city on the Aegean Sea. And in the turn of his advantages, the main place was occupied by the temple in honor of the goddess Artemis.
Not only prosperity, but also to your decline, Ephesus is obliged to sea. In the latter case, it was the rolling back of water from the urban trait became a sentence for the city. After all, Ephesus Ros and Bimbal Thanks to Maritime Trade. And with the time, the harbor, which made him a commercial center filled with deposits of the nanosimy river, and the seashore retreated significantly (today the distance is 10 km). The coast was rolled and roughly, ships stopped entering the harbor, merchants left. By the end of the fifth century, the last people left here. Ephesus turned into a city ; ghost. Earthquakes and landslides became the last chord in his life, for a long time, buried the Ephesus under the ground.
Only in the second half of the 19th century, the first excavations began, which opened the beauty of the ancient city, which opened the contemporary world. The archaeological zone of Ephesus, the size of more than ten kilometers, lies in the vicinity of the Turkish town of Selchuk. And in the museum of the villagers are kept unique finds from Ephesus and neighboring settlements.
History of Ephesus ; Mirror reflection of the fate of many cities of the East of Malaya Asia. Initially, they were founded as large Greek settlements, then fell under Persian dominion and were conquered by Alexander Macedonian. Repeatedly passed from hand to hand, got the Romans, and then entered the Ottoman Empire.
Times of Roman Board
In the times of Roman control, Ephesus was in the heyday and established himself as the capital of Malaya Asia. Despite the fact that the city existed long to the present day, its geometry is similar to the drawing of many modern cities. Instead of sending the streets to where the buildings were already standing, the Romans allowed the street network from two main boulevards. Thus creating a framework of the city. Ephesus was a big megalopolis with wide avenues, temples, theaters, library, market square, gymnasium, city council, etc.
Bridge of ancient city. Photo Credit: Cory Schadt, 500px
Celsius Library in Ephesus. Photo Credit: Julian Zeiher, 500px
Today we do not think about the fact that part of what we consider the achievements of the modern world, brought to perfection with ancient people. This applies to the cultural sphere and life. For example, the culture of mass assembly, gyms, as well as sewage and flowing water system, were common to a number of ancient civilizations long before our era.
And the Greeks and Romans, loved public entertainment for which huge theaters were built. Examples of such giants serve Efensian big and small theaters. And if the Small Theater was used alternately, then as a place of meetings of the city senate, then as the theater scene, the big was intended exclusively for the spectacle.
The Bolshoi Theatre
The three-story theater building was surrounded by tiers of visual rows of any 25,000 people. The battles of wild animals and the battle of gladiators were held in the arena, public courts and theatrical productions. Such was the SPECTOR OF THE ENTERPRESS OF THE MOSCOW EFESS.
Looking at the surviving semicircle of a huge visual hall, you can only imagine what a hem has published an excited crowd during presentations. Nevertheless, the need for a sound saw, there was no. And not only because the acoustics in itself were great, but also because the breeze from the bay located to the east of the theater, he brought the sound even to the most remote places.
Efesse Antique Theater. Photo Credit: abdul balıkcı, 500px
Next to the empty amphitheater is the field. Today it is a warehouse of ruin, but once there was a gymnasium, where he was taught reading, writing, philosophy, simultaneously with an intense course of physical preparation. Initially, there were several premises in an ancient intellectual sports complex. In particular, the rooms for massages and rubbing oils, warm and cold bathing (typidarium and freegidarium), relaxation rooms with comfortable shops. Nearby, on open sports grounds, played the ball, competed in running and jumping.
In turn, the Romans of the Gymnasies underwent metamorphosis. First, gymnars began to call schools. Secondly, with terms ; Roman baths, gymnastic sites were built, which in their device resembled Greek gymnasiums. The terms or bath gym visited the Romans almost every day. These were perfect places for those who cared for their body and wanted him to be struck and fought in the baths. At the same time, here ordinary did discussions, scientists conversations and listen to the speeches of philosophers.
Library of Celsius, one of the most famous and photographed places of ancient Ephesus. Her facade was restored in his original form during the restoration of the city. Greeks and Romans not only paid great attention to knowledge, but also wanted to keep them for future generations. Accordingly, all that was known to people at that time should have been recorded and saved. For these purposes, Romans built a library.
The library was built at the beginning of the second century in honor of the philosopher of Celsius ; Big fan ; Knowledge scrolls ;. His burial, contrary to the Roman tradition, forbidding to bury people within the city, placed under the central niche of the reading room. The library has a huge number of scrolls. At a certain point, their order was kept here 15 thousand. The facade of the building was directed to the East, in order to provide the reading room with morning light. In addition to the grand columns, the building decorated four statues of female figures symbolized wisdom, virtue, thought and knowledge.
Facade of the Library of Celsius. Photo Credit: Doğa Giay, 500px
Statues on the facade of the library. Photo Credit: Saida Demchenko, 500px
Today you can make a fairly accurate idea of the most different sides of the life of almost anyone. But one topic, as a rule, often bypass by side, namely ; Selling place. We consider it by granted the presence of public toilets in the modern world, but how were things with these questions from our ancestors?
Roman public restrooms looked the same as their Greek predecessors: a wooden or stone bench, located above the sewage system, on which water flowed from aqueduct, carrying uncleanness to the nearest river.
; marble rooms ;
Preserved Ephesis Exhibat ; this is a toilet from marble. In the seats, the round holes are cut, and in front – the slots in the form of a keyhole. Opinions relative to the latter. According to one version, the holes were intended to clean the toilet bowls, and on the other ; With the help of a slot, people led themselves, so to speak.
Over the absence of toilet paper, used the Mediterranean sponge (elastic porous mass), lightning on a wooden wand. At the entrance to the restroom, it was necessary to choose a wand with a sponge, wash it in a flowing under the legs of the flow channel of cold water, or using a salt water tank / vinegar. After the procedure was made, the sponges were thrown out, and the sticks were left for the next visitor.
Plate with holes on which a person sat down, did not assume any dividing walls. In the Effescom, these very toilet plates were located along three walls. Each of them was up to 12 seats. Correspondingly in the toilet, it could simultaneously accommodate about 36 people. And it is possible that it is for this reason that the place was outdoors).
For hand washing, a fountain stood in the toilet zone. At times, people were spinning with towels or fragrances, which were served upon request of visitors.
In general, the ancient Romans received from public toilet as it should be ; relief ; and even some comfort, but not only a personal space in which it may not really need and needed. Against ; at the gatherings ; led conversations and shared news. Here it was possible to hear political acute and sarcastic poems.
It should also be noted that ; marble service ; was paid and, accordingly, was available not to every resident of Ephesus. Those who did not enter the detachment of wealthy citizens, used toilets where more easier, but with a similar device.