Conquering the South Pole: Documentary images of the Expedition "Terra Nova" 1910-1913
In 1910, the British scientist Robert Falcon Scott went to his second expedition to Antarctica. The goal was ambitious: to explore new lands and get to the southern pole – it was not yet possible to anyone.
While the North Pole was divided among themselves Frederick Cook and Robert Pear (about this practically detective history "My Planet" already wrote), challengers for the championship in the south was three: Briton Ernest Sheklton did not reach the pole of some 180 km in 1907 year, and Norwegian Ruhal Amundsen moved into the path simultaneously with Scott.
In January 1911, the Team of the Scott Shop "Terra Nova" made landing on the island of Ross, part of the Ice Continent south of New Zealand. Here, the expedition discharged dogs, horses, motorcycles and details of the wooden hut for 15 x 7.6 m. To preserve the heat of its walls were isolated seaweed and covered with quilted blankets. The roof consisted of three layers of the boards, between which the rubber was laid and the same sea algae.
After creating the camp, the participants of the expedition took up research.
The first officer Viktor Campbell with another six participants of the expedition sailed to the "Terra Nove" to the East, hoping to conduct a scientific work on the Peninsula of the King Edward VII (part of the land of Mary Bard). Returning back, they were surprised to find the Amundsen team in the whale bay. The parties exchanged courtesy, and Campbell hurried to Scott – report that the opponent arrived.
Suggest competitors chose different methods to achieve the goal. Amundsen made a bet on the lungs and mobile dogs, which was going to eat on the way back, as Sanya relies. Scott planned promotion thoroughly: with warehouses along the path, the load to which the horses were supposed to deliver.
Scott’s mission collided with complications almost immediately. Party detained cruel blizzards. Horses were not adapted to difficult conditions, they weakened and died. So, only two animals from eight returned from the storage preparation mission.
25 Man of the coastal party settled in a hut with the beginning of winter (from April 1911), studying research and having entertained by casual football. Scott continued to plan a ride on the pole.
In the middle of winter, Dr. Edward Wilson with several members of the expedition went to a 60-mile expedition to extract the eggs of the imperial penguins. They had to transfer hurricane winds and frost to -25 ° C. Three eggs became their prey.
It’s time to go to the pole. Since the beginning of Spring Scott outlined its plan. Part of 16 people will go through a large ice barrier along with motorities, horses and dogs. Most of the group will have to return, and the main one will go on to the pole.
Start was given on October 24, 1911. Motosani broke, without having passed and 50 miles. The plan had to be corrected, now the main calculation was on dogs. In particularly heavy places Sanya traveled people.
Cynologist Cecil Mirz for piano in the hut. January 1912
Sun team. Approximately 1912
On December 4, the party went to the far edge of a large ice barrier and began to storm the Birdmore glacier. December 20, they reached a plateau. Now only it blocks the path to the pole.
On January 3, 1912, the dogs were sent back to the base. To the pole, on the choice of Scott, more than four more people moved: Dr. Edward Wilson, Captain Lawrence UTS, Henry Bowers and Edgar Evans.
January 16 Among the infinite white space around, they noticed something: the black flag was waving at the rate. Amundsen avened them for a month.
The next day, Scott and his companions reached the southern pole and found a camp left Amundsen. "Great God! It’s a terrible place, and we are already terrible to realize that our works were not crowned with the conquest of the championship. Of course, come here, too, something yes, and the wind can become our friend tomorrow! Now – jerk home and desperate struggle for the right to deliver news first. I do not know if we stand?"- recorded Scott in the diary.
Researchers turned back. Without much work, they crossed the polar plateau, but the path through the glacier took all the remaining forces. At first Evans died. It happened on February 17. The remaining four got to one of the intermediate warehouses in the hope of meeting with dogs, but no one came to the camp during this time.
Frostbite and the beginning of the gangrene feet did not allow the secession to move more than a few miles per day. March 17, in his 32nd birthday, he stopped feeling his hands. Understanding that he delays a group, UTS, gathering the balance of forces, crawl out of a tent in the ice wind, saying that "perhaps will not return soon".
Scott, Bauers and Wilson weakened every day. March 20, just 11 miles from the largest supplies warehouse, they were stopped by a brutal blizzard. A week later, nothing has changed.
On March 29, Scott made the last entry in his diary: "Every day we were going to go to a warehouse, which left 11 miles left, but the tent does not get a blizzard. I do not think that we can now hope for the best. We will endure to the end, but we are weak and death, of course, is close. Sorry but I don’t think I can write more. For the sake of God, do not leave our loved ones!"
Members of the expedition from the stationary camp committed numerous trips to the supply warehouses in the hope of finding the Polar Party, but to no avail. Overzimovov, the next search party went on the road on October 29. Less than two weeks they found Scott’s bodies, Wilson and Bowers.
Members of the expedition return to New Zealand on Terra Nova. January 1913
The result of this story was the book "The Horrely Journey" Epsley Cherry Garrard. "My Planet" published excerpts from her.
P. S. Scott hut has preserved. She spent the first half of the XX century in captivity of ice and snow, but in 1956 she was separated by American researchers. Everyone was very surprised when they found it almost in perfect condition.
"The worst journey" in history, in spite of everything, was not useless. It was within the framework of this expedition that scientists conducted the most ambitious studies of Antarctic.