Country China: brief information and interesting facts
China is a country that admires some and scares other Russians. On this page of our site we will try to tell about China a lot of interesting things. We hope that "Podnebyny" will become closer and clearer.
Where is China and with whom it borders
China is the third country in the world in the area of the territory, inferior to only Russia and Canada. If you take the territory that can be confidently called "Caught", then China is an absolute leader.
China is located in Asia (see. The map on the right), and from the east is washed by the Pacific Ocean, from the north borders with Russia, Mongolia and North Korea. In the West, its neighbors are Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan. In the south, China borders with Myanmar (Burma), Laos and Vietnam.
China ranks first in the world in the population, we will talk about the Chinese tightly in one of the sections below. China’s economy is one of the strongest in the world, but it is difficult to say which exactly in place, since there are several alternative evaluation methods.
For general GDP (gross domestic product), the Chinese are in second place in the world after the United States. If you take a per capita GDP, then China is not even in the top ten, but somewhere around the 80th place.
The name of the country
The word "China" is only here, and in other countries of the world, China is called China (Chain) or similar names. Many people ask: where did such a difference come from the words between Russian and other European languages?
The reason is next. European civilization got acquainted with China for a long time during the Roman Republic. It cannot be said that the contacts were very dense. Between Rome and China there was only a small commodity exchange and often through intermediaries.
This was even recently removed the film, it is called "Dragon Blade". Poster on the picture on the left. Of course, this kinocartine does not claim accurate historical accuracy, but the share of truth in it is.
The name of the country of the Romans was adopted in that period, the word "Chin" China was then called many nations. From here from ancient times and the name is China (Chinas). Romans and the Greeks used and still the second word "Siene".
The most valuable Chinese goods for Europe were silk and the Chinese porcelain equal to which Europeans did not know in quality. For a long time, the word china in Europe was called china, too.
The word "China" comes from the name of the nomadic people living in the north of China. These people called themselves "Cydani" or "China", and they occupied extensive territories and fought with the Chinese. The name of their people was accustomed to designate North China.
If you look at the entries of our traveler Athanasius Nikitina, we will see that he called the northern part of the country "Kitaa", and the southern "rank". The word "China" swinging in Slavic languages and there began to be used to designate the whole country. This difference has formed.
With China, Russians met directly only in 1618, when the first embassy arrived in Beijing. The diplomatic mission was headed by Cossack Ivan Petlin. The delegation arrived in Beijing without gifts and without credentials, and in China is not accepted.
Emperor Wall refused to accept them, but officials handed the Cossacks a welcome document in Chinese. This document was brought to Moscow, but could not be read, and he broke in the Embassy of 50 years. From him and there was a 4-way expression "Chinese grades". All over the world, the emperor Woney became more famous for the fact that his tombs called "Underground palace", The only one is open in the valley of the sombrits of emperors of the Ming dynasty in the north of Beijing.
The Chinese themselves call their country of Joon, that literally translates as "Central Country". The word "central" is denoted by the hieroglyph, which is shown in the picture on the right. While traveling to China, you will often see it.
This Chinese hieroglyph is very easy to remember, as it looks like a Russian letter "F". It comes from an image of an arrow that fell exactly to the target, that is, in the center.
Do not think that the Chinese are selfish and consider themselves the center of the world. Just in ancient times there were no other foci of civilization, and this name was relevant. Since then, China has long understood that there are many other civilizations in the world, but the name remains.
By the way, in terms of tolerance to other peoples, we should learn from the Chinese. If you go to China in a tourist trip, you will realize that the Chinese are very friendly to foreigners.
Population of China
Almost all sources call China the largest country in the population. It’s hard to say how true it is. About 1.34 billion people live in China, but this is the official figure. In China, there are many unregistered citizens, although the government prefers this problem not to advertise. No one knows how many exactly these people, the numbers differ from 100 to 400 million.
India could claim first place, according to official data there lives 1.25 billion. But this figure is hardly true, since the census in India is simply terrible.
About 93% of China’s population is representatives of the "Han" nation, they are the Chinese. On the one hand, they realize themselves with a single nation, but on the other, the differences in culture, traditions and the language of different provinces can be huge.
An interesting question: "When and how the Chinese appeared and why they call themselves Han?"
Until the 3rd century, China’s population was very dissimilar to our era, but in 220 the ruler Qin Schihuandi was able to win the whole China and became his first emperor.
He began several ambitious construction projects – Linzui Canal, Epan Palace, His Tomb in Xian City, Terracotta Army, and, of course, Great Wall. These projects demanded gigantic labor costs, and workers for them were drilled from all provinces. It was during this period that the population of the country was very strong. It was the policy of the emperor to preserve power – the more the population is stirred, the smaller the riots.
The Qin dynasty changed the New Dynasty of Han, and during the period of its board there was a process of smoothing differences and association of Chinese in one nation. Hence the name of this nation – Han.
Even considering this mixing, the Chinese did not become a completely homogeneous nation. Until now, the differences between them in different provinces are huge. Northery more round, and southerners are more thin. Northery disciplined and closed, and southerners more freedom-loving and sociable. And their languages are different.
It is usually said that in China many dialects, but this definition is not quite correct. For example, in Russia there are dialects – Muscovites "ACHATI", in other regions "will", St. Petersburg people say "Sosila", "Parade" and "Kura Grill". But we all remarkably understand each other.
And the Chinese from different provinces do not understand each other at all. Their dialects are so different that it is appropriate to speak not about dialects, but about different languages.
Previously, China experienced gigantic problems due to these language differences. Even the Chinese army was weak, as the soldiers often did not understand the orders of commanders. Problems in communication created obstacles in establishing economic ties. Completed the migration of the population required for economic development.
The output was found, and the official oral language was introduced, one for the whole country. It is called "Putunhua". He is very similar to the Beijing dialect of Chinese, but still not.
All central television and radio speaks only in this language. Now in Chinese schools, teaching is carried out only on Putunhua. Most Chinese citizens speak it freely, except for some older people and residents of the countryside of remote areas.
And imagine how convenient. Marry a girl from another province, and your mother-in-law knows Putunhua. The world in the family is provided. We have a familiar Ukrainian who moved to China, so he just has such a situation. He is pleased.
Europeans is very difficult to learn Chinese, as it is a tonal. The word has a different meaning if it is told by different colors. Such languages are also called "musical". Four different tones in Chinese. Read this page about how tourists can solve the language problem.
Putunhua is the official language not only China, but also Taiwan. Taipei and Beijing have many differences, but in the question of the language they are one.
Written by China
Dialects differ only on the pronunciation of words, and writing the same throughout the PRC. The Chinese write hieroglyphs, each of which denotes a simple word. Total Chinese hieroglyphs about 40,000, but only 10,000 are actively used.
Many people think that a hieroglyph corresponds to each word, but it is not. This is true only for ordinary words, and complex words consist of several icons.
For example, there is no hieroglyph for the word "aircraft". This word consists of two icons – "Flying" and "Machine".
With the word "helicopter" is still more difficult – it is "straight" + "take off" + "car". And so on, all complex words are formed by such a principle.
In Chinese, there are two writing systems – traditional and simplified. In the 40s of the twentieth century, China’s authorities began the largest reform of writing in history, and this reform ended only in the 80s.
It was believed that many Chinese hieroglyphs are too complicated for ordinary people, and they were decided to simplify. "Under the knife" got all the hieroglyphs, in which the number of chopsticks was more than 10. In the picture on the left, good examples of such simplifications.
It was believed that simplification would sharply increase the literacy of the population, will give impetus to the development of the economy, and so on. In fact, nothing like this happened. In Taiwan, in Macao and Hong Kong, the traditional letter is still used as basic, and no problems with literacy and economies are not observed there.
And now will answer the question that is asked almost all the Russians when it comes to Chinese hieroglyphs: "And how they are printed on the keyboard? 10 thousand hieroglyphs on the buttons do not place!"
All simple. They print the pronunciation of hieroglyph, for example, "n" + "i". The computer displays several options for icons corresponding to these sounds. Most words in Chinese are one consonant and one vowel sound. The user chooses that hieroglyph that needs. So print.
China is the second economy of the world after the United States, and in some estimates even the first. Most Russians are sacred believe that the Chinese have achieved this solely at the expense of the vast population and cheap worker, but it is not quite so. The success of the Chinese consists of two components – these are cheap working arms and competent government policy.
Think by yourself why you need cheap workers if you can’t open the factory or you can not connect it to the power grid?
Government policy is the defining factor. PRC authorities do everything so that they appear new enterprises and production flourished.
In many provinces, the authorities are building industrial parks themselves. These are land plots to which all the necessary communications are in advance – electricity, water, sewage and communication. Any company can take this area for rent and build a factory.
Try to open a new venture in Russia! We have one connection to the power supply you need to coordinate the whole year, or even longer. Reasonable Party and Government Policy – Here is the true cause of the Chinese economic miracle.
China is an absolute leader in the production of all goods of widespread demand, but in high-tech products they are still weak. For example, the famous Chinese high-speed trains are a German technology from Siemens, which the Chinese then copied. From Shanghai Airport to the city you can drive by Maglev’s train at a speed of 430 km / h, but know that this train "Made in germany".
Now the country’s economy reoriented to internal consumption and raising the standard of living of their citizens. It is likely that soon the era of superdishevy Chinese goods will end.
Does the Chinese live well?
In China, a huge bundle. Tourists are difficult to notice this, but the authors of JJ-Tours still work with Chinese plants for a long time. We know how people live there.
The managerial link and entrepreneurs live well – ride cars and buy apartments in the mortgage, go with iPhone and in good clothes. Working class lives much worse.
In Russia, we are not accustomed to the big difference of salaries. For example, in the trading company in Moscow, the manager receives a salary of 50-60,000 rubles, and a warehouse worker 30-40,000 rubles. The difference in the wage of the working class and midline – usually nothing more than twice. We are accustomed to this since the time of the USSR, when it was dominated by the principle "from everyone according to the abilities, for everyone according to the needs".
In China, this difference can be 5 and 10 times, and no one is surprised. Workers in coastal cities often come from the country’s inner regions. They live in the basements of enterprises in which they work. They often do not have a weekend at all, only on the Chinese New Year they can go to see their relatives.
Salary is small, but the minimum bar grows every year. In China, there is a minimum wage installed in each province separately. For Shanghai in 2014, this is 18 Chinese yuan per hour or 2020 yuan per month. There are regions where this plank is still twice. Very many workers in China work for "minimal". The peasant estate lives even worse, I don’t even want to tell about it.
The only "Life ticket" for the Chinese is education and knowledge of languages. Therefore, if during a tourist trip to China, the Chinese are suitable for you on the street and ask to talk in English, do not be surprised. For them it is important, this is a foreign language practice.
However, after a sharp drop in the course of the Russian ruble at the end of 2014 and early 2015, a big question is already: "Where better live in Russia or China?"
One family is one child
This restriction has been introduced for a long time – back in 1981. Its essence is clear from the name, and the goal is to reduce the population of the country to the figure of about 700,000,000 people. It acts at all as much as the Russians are imagined to themselves, and the number of misconceptions on this expense is extremely large.
First, the restriction concerns not all provinces and not all cities. In fact, only a third of the Chinese superimposes a rigid restriction. Half of the country’s residents are allowed to start a second child if the first girl was born.
In fact, in China a lot of rules on this. The legislation is very confusing, and it is very difficult to understand who can have a second child who does not have, who can pay it, and who has preferential right. To be honest, there "without 100 grams not to figure out", and if the vodka is Chinese, then without 200 grams minimum.
Most of all rumors go about what is the punishment for violating this policy. It is said that women are forced to make abortions or nebat. In fact – these are fines. One of our friends started the second child and just paid the fine. In 2012, he paid an amount equivalent to 300,000 Russian rubles. The amount is big, but quite for him "lifting".
The results of this policy are ambiguous. In Kininomedy, DBM was such a phrase that surprisingly exactly describes the state of the current China. Remember, from the conversation of two soldiers:
One of the effects was a sharp increase in the male part of the population. For 5 women in China there are already 6 men, and it is scary to imagine what will happen next. For this and many other reasons, this policy is now coincided.
We believed that all the Chinese are vigorously Buddhists, which is wrong. Tourists love to watch the magnificent Chinese pagoda, and, perhaps, here and gone, this association. Buddhism is really common in China, but not a united Chinese philosophical and religious thought.
Traditional Chinese ideology keeps on "three whales" – Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism.
Most of the Chinese at the same time – atheists. It says official statistics, and our observations this idea confirm completely.
The era of communism brought its fruits, and most of the population stopped to believe something. But a way of thinking, ethics and norms of behavior of modern Chinese are formed by these three scientists. By the way, none of them cannot recognize the religion in the usual understanding of this word.
Freedom in China
This country is considered one of the most unprofitable in the world. It was both in Chinese history, but now everything changes. Modern Chinese does not feel some serious control, although in fact he exists.
On the other hand, freedom to realize yourself in China an order of magnitude more than in Russia. There is much easier to open your business, much more easier to engage in your business independently, and not "work for uncle". There would be a desire to work, and the state would not interfere with you.
In China, you can not criticize the government on the Internet. Internet in China is subjected to strict censorship. But the authorities are listening to what is happening, and draw conclusions. There have been events on Tiananmen Square, the Communist Party made conclusions, and reform began.
Taiwan, Macau and Hong Kong
Hong Kong is a former colony in the British Empire. Recently, it is officially the province of PRC. In essence, this is a separate state. Power in Beijing responds only for external policies, and all other administrative issues are solved by local authorities.
Here is your currency, your laws, your visa regime and tax law. Citizens of Russia can visit Hong Kong without a visa, and on the main territory of the country you can get, only having a Chinese visa in passport.
The tax system in Hong Kong is completely different – there is no VAT tax (VAT), and many things are cheaper by 15-20%. If you want to buy iPhone or iPad cheap, then you are the road to Hong Kong. Many Chinese come here for smartphones, tablet computers and laptops.
Macau’s city is similar to part of the PRC, and also has almost complete independence. This is the former colony of Portugal. Here your laws, money and taxation.
Macau is a casino city, this is Asian Las Vegas. If Chinese wants to play poker, black jack or roulette, then goes here.
Comprehensible situation with Taiwan Island. China officially considers him its territory and the province of PRC. Taiwanese do not agree with this, and most of the world recognizes their point of view.
Taiwan is a hotel state. Here all your own, including the army and the navy. This state is called republic of China (ROC), which is translated as "Republic of China". No negotiations on the entry of Taiwan in the PRC is not conducted.
An important advice for tourists. In Chinese airports, flights to MacAo, Hong Kong and Taiwan are called "homemade", and landing on airplanes to these regions is carried out from terminals for local flights. Do not confuse.
If you like China, and you seriously decided to visit this country, then read the following article "Than China is interesting for tourists".
We wish you a successful visit to China, and read our pages about this country (Links below).
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"Interesting facts about chinese music", Could you give me information on this issue?
Alexander – Glavred site
In Chinese music, we have no one strong. Later, can be learned this topic and write articles.