Customs and Traditions Bangladesh
The territory of the ancient Bengal is one of the most multiestnic regions of South Asia. And the long and difficult story of these places led to the formation of a peculiar "Alloy" of dozens, if not hundreds of peoples, tribes, faith, cultures and traditions. Therefore, at present, you can only talk about any aspect of local traditions with a well-known share of generalization, since in each region of the country can be found something special.
Religion is perhaps the main difference between the numerous ethnic groups of the country, having a good noticeable impact on the relationship of people. Almost 83% of believers – Muslim Sunnis, about 16% – Hindus, Buddhists – 0.5%, Christians – 0.3%. But these figures can also be considered very conditional, since representatives of many denominations live here side by side for many centuries. Since 1988, Islam has been the official state religion of the country, and Bangladesh himself is one of the largest population of Muslim countries in the world. Most local residents profess the Sunni Branch of Islam, but there are also small Shiites Communes. Hindus are almost evenly distributed throughout the country, forming large communes in Khulna, Jessure, Dineljpur, Faridpur and Barisale. Buddhists inhabit the most part of the south-eastern areas, where their neighbors are numerous small tribes, confessing a peculiar mixture from Buddhism and Animism. Bangladesh also has a very small Christian community (less than a million people, mainly Catholics) inhabiting the regions of the former Portuguese and British enclaves.
At the same time, the Constitution of the country guarantees complete religious freedom, which is a very important point for many locals. Unlike many surrounding countries, Bangladesh Muslims and Hinduses live in relative harmony, the shocks on religious soil are extremely rare and even in areas where the orthodox currents of Islam are obtained, people are free and with noticeable joy participate in all joint events, whether Religious holiday or public works. Even a tourist can be considered a welcome guest at some local ceremony, regardless of which denomination he belongs to.
Bangladeshns in the bulk of their own have not yet lost faith in pagan rituals or traditions, regardless of the faith that they say they themselves. This is especially pronounced in the villages. Empty jug, bird corpse or willow branch on the road, odd number – all this is considered an unfavorable sign for starting traveling or new business. And Banyan for incomprehensible reasons generally serves almost the subject of a reverent fear and a rural resident without much the reasons will never go past him at night, although on the Hindu tradition is one of the most revered trees. The birth of a boy is regarded as good luck, and the birth of a daughter in most cases is undesirable. This is explained by the fact that the daughter must be married, collect her dowry and so on, so a daughter for a bengale – "Sliced Lump". After the wedding, she completely turns into submission to her husband and his family. The Son, on the contrary, will help parents in old age.
Muslims and Christians bury the bodies of the dead in cemeteries, Hindus burn them. Muslims are commemoration "Kulkhani" On the fourth day of death, and Christians on the fourteenth ("Czech"). Hindus bury the deceased son, husband or nearest relative (man). Women are not allowed to place where cremation is performed. After the death of parents in the morning, the son is obliged to scream. All sorts of rites of this kind here is the countless set and each of them can be considered an independent illustration for the long history of this Earth, and often having much more important for the local resident, which seems at first glance. Therefore, it is not recommended to try to participate in similar ceremonies without official permission, or try to shoot them, even from afar – this can cause a rather aggressive reaction.
It is worth noting that rudiments of the Hindu Custom System are clearly traced in Bangladesh. Each local resident is proud of its pedigree and can outline the social status of their ancestors by 5-7 generations. However, this feature is noticeably smoothed by an Islamic trend to attach much greater importance to the intellectual and educational level of a person. By the way, in the mass of his Bangladeshns not very benevolently belong to "Heritage of India", What is connected with the difficult process of the collapse of this British colony and followed by the wars. But as in the case of violetness, no one gives any particular importance and everything remains at the level of domestic judgments, without pouring into an open confrontation between the local Hindus and the rest of the country’s population.
Bangala (Bengali, Bengali) – the official language of the country. It is closely connected with the adverbs of East India, but has its own alphabet (57 characters) and many borrowing from Farsky, Arabic, English and others. This is an ancient language with an abundance of semantic intonations and a rich poetic tradition, which is an important element of national self-consciousness. When the country was part of Pakistan, it was an attempt to introduce instead of Bang Tongue Urdu, served as one of the reasons for the national uprising and subsequent independence. Thus, Bangladeshns consider themselves the only people on Earth, which entered into war only for the sake of preserving their language. At the same time, English is taught in schools, and as a mandatory subject. It is widely used in cities and as a language of interethnic communication. Newspapers also go out in two languages.
More than 80% of Bangladeshs residents live in rural communities, although in recent decades there has been an obvious trend towards migration to large cities, first of all – to the capital. Local villages are rather colorful by themselves. These small settlements can be found almost everywhere, although for the most part they are concentrated along the rivers – the main transport arteries of the country. Most of these villages are erected on special bulk platforms that protect them from flooding, and at home themselves are built of clay or bamboo with straw or indoor corrugated iron roof. Crochetic kindergartens are necessarily broken around, which during floods can serve pastures for livestock, as well as small ponds, since the river water is two thirds of the year simply unsuitable for drinking due to their saturation of clay, left-hand and organic residues (no one and not thinking).
Society in Bangladesh has not yet lost its collective nature. Respect for the eldest widespread and completely not artificial. In rural areas, youth welcomes senior "taking dust from the legs". They were given the privilege to the first to start and head some kinds, they are universally used as advisers and clans leaders, regardless of the religious preferences of a particular community. Older people usually head local communes, which most of which are just large families, within which numerous relatives of different generations live. The head of the family usually oversees the supervision and control over all their children, not married, and other dependent relatives. When the young man marries, he leads his wife into the house of his parents and the wife of the head of the family appoints a circle of responsibilities within the general farm.
Characteristic. that with all due to older, probably nowhere in the world youth does not play such an important role in the development of society and the country’s policy, as in Bangladesh. There are approximately 31.7 thousand primary and secondary schools, 170 colleges and technical schools, two major university and about a dozen provincial. Teaching in all educational institutions is conducted in English and Bangala. The level of education is one of the most important elements of social status and for many young people is a real idea – Fix. Therefore, the overall level of education in the country, even despite the amazing poverty of most of the population, is quite high, and scientists from Bangladesh work in the prestigious institutions of the whole world.
Marriage is often satisfied with the parents who themselves are looking for a couple for a son or daughter. However, marriage cannot be considered legal, if the young people themselves do not agree to him. Therefore, an independent search for a partner is becoming increasingly distribution, but it can also not lead to a wedding without approval of parents. Some conservative Muslims avoid marry with adherents of other denominations, but in general there are no prohibitions for such marriages. The wedding ceremony itself is held immediately, within the village of Groom, on a specially built and decorated platform, and is necessarily carried out with the participation of a priest or mufti ("Kazi").
In rapidly growing cities, like the capital of the country, the families are trying to live on European principles. In a typical city family, both parents are most often educated professionals working outside the house having their separate house or apartment. Children live with them only to their own wedding, in the future preferring to settle separately. But recently, in connection with the catastrophic influx of the village in the city, this tradition becomes characteristic only for representatives of the middle class, and the majority of the population brings their customs in the cities. And in the end, all new quarters of Dhaka, Chittagong, Narajangganj and other major cities are becoming more faster into peculiar "Bidonvilly", Built literally from waste from villages from villages. In this case, all citizens without exception feel a strong connection with native places and often visit them at every case.
Relations between men and women from the side may seem very formal. The husband usually works outside the house, often in another province, the wife is doing a household, monitors the main field work (more than 90% of the population are still engaged in industries, to one degree or another related to agriculture). That is, even visually they intersect with each other as if very rare. However, in fact, everything is not quite true, just the strict traditions of Islamic in most people are not encouraging open manifestation of feelings.
Touching a stranger is considered the rule of bad tone. Therefore, men are not advised to stretch their hand as a greeting, especially to refrain from the proposal of a handshake of Bangladesh woman or a child. Men can only keep his hand with each other, but it is only if they are familiar. As the same tradition, an underlined avoidance of contacts is connected even in a dense crowd on the street, so the annoying local merchants are unlikely to have enough strangers behind the floor of clothes or elbow, as is customary in many neighboring countries.
Most Bangladesh women wears "Shari" (sari) – colorful five-meter tissue band, which is in a special way turn around the body and drape into numerous folds. Also, pancake skirts and short blouses, which are complemented by special belts or again wrapped in a few times the band of the fabric. Some choose "Shalvar Camiz" – A set of long (almost to the knees, and more and longer – then it is supplied with cuts on the sides) free shirt with sleeves and the same free trousers. Options are so simple at first glance of clothing thousands – local residents show a well-known ingenuity in this matter and often separate their clothes with a special grace.
Men wear "LUNGI" – A kind of free skirt collected on the belt in the knot, long shirt "Punjabi" (There is also a female option) complete with loose trousers ("Pijama"), scarf ("Dupatta") and all the same "LUNGI". In the Hindu communities distributed "dhot" – Something among each "LUNGI" and sari, although tied on another principle. In the cities of men love the European type costume, as it is prestigious, but often such clothes are similar to Western only by name and shared mind. In business circles, a European costume and strict variants of the national costume are distributed.
In most cases, all clothes are made from light cotton fabrics, but for festive options are usually sufficiently tight and richly trimmed fabrics. And at the same time, even despite the high temperature of the local climate, many residents of Bangladesh are very fond of warm versions of national clothing (for example, a sweater "Kurta") because it is tritely flawed even at a temperature of + 20-22 s, and in the season of rains such clothes gives much better defense.
Bangladesh – primarily a Muslim and conservative country, so that there are some restrictions on clothes. Women strongly recommend adhere to "Conservative Standard" Dresses and avoid overwhelmed outfits. Long light skirts or trousers with cotton blouse are the most optimal choice in some formal situations. Interestingly, despite the strict traditions, local women are not afraid of collaborating hands or belly even just going out into the street, but the header on the head, more reminiscent of a thin shawl (it usually goes a long end all the same "Shari"), do not forget almost never.
At the table, Bengal’s customs differ little from Indian. Local residents are usually eating without the use of cutlery – "kata" (forks), "Chamoche" (spoons) and "Chhuri" (knives) are used usually only for cooking, but almost certainly there will be no on the table (however, in cafes and restaurants, devices can be simply asked for a waiter). Most Bengaltsev eats only with their right hand, in strict accordance with the norms of Islam, taking food into a pinch of small portions and helping yourself with a pellet or a piece of bread. In rural areas, the bengals are traditionally eaten right on Earth, using a low stand as a table or simply plated on the ground. Often for this purpose are used large banana leaves, massacled and compressed together. They often serve as dishes, or peculiar napkins, when it is necessary to convey food from a common plate in the mouth, without waking it up by (the slope at the table is not very welcome). In Muslim houses, special pads or rollers are used, here you can most often see the lowest tables of Arabic type.
Traditional scarcity of the local table is usually compensated by the culinary skill of the hostess, therefore it is considered not to praise in every way and the hostess, and her skill, and the house itself. Common dishes are most often placed in the center "Table" on big plates or all the same banana leaves, and everyone serves themselves. In ceremonial cases, such as weddings or religious holidays, the meal is a complex ritual, not to confuse in which it is simply impossible. Therefore, in such cases it is recommended to consult local residents (they relate to such questions extremely benevolently) or simply act as they.
It is considered indecent to show the feet of their feet to others, so at the table it is customary to sit crossed legs and pursing them. If the guest wants to give something to the owner as a sign of gratitude, in no case can the money and alcohol can be given – it can cause serious offense. Better to give sweets, tobacco, some fruits and souvenirs. Very greater joy cause colorfully decorated books, even if they are written on an unknown owner. Women accepted to give flowers and some trinkets (decorations, clocks or clothing items can only give a husband!). It is very recommended to respect the religious views of the owners and in no way enter into conversations for theosophical topics. Although Bangladeshsians are known as a very reluctant nation, restraint here clearly does not prevent.