The Dead Sea got its name in the second century. NS. Due to the fact that due to the high content of salt in it, neither fish nor other organisms can live.
However, in recent decades, about 70 types of oomycetes and higher fungi, capable of transferring the highest salinity of this reservoir. In addition, the therapeutic properties of the water of the Dead Sea are revealed, so that its beaches are attracting more and more tourists every year.
The Dead Sea — Relieven Salt Lake in the Middle East, located in the territory of the three states: Israel, Jordan and Palestinian Autonomy. In the sea, several drying streams and the Jordan River.
The greatest length of the sea — 67 kilometers, maximum width — 18 kilometers. Depth reaches 306 meters. Water level in the Dead Sea is 430 m below sea level and lowers at a speed of 1 meter per year. The salinity of the Dead Sea varies within 300 — 350 ‰.
The water of the Dead Sea has a unique mineralogical composition: it contains about 50.8% magnesium chloride, 14.4% calcium chloride, 30.4% sodium chloride and 4.4% of potassium chloride. In the sea salt, significantly more bromides than sulfates. Such a composition of water gives it by special properties, thanks to which the Dead Sea has become a popular healing resort.
Over the past hundred years, intensive production and processing of the natural resources of the Dead Sea are carried out, and 80% of the tributaries flowing into the sea are used for industrial purposes. During this time, the water level dropped by 25 meters, and the destructive process every year only progresses.
In 1977, the crude sea was divided into two parts — North and South. Plants engaged in mining and processing minerals are located on the southern part of the Dead Sea, which was turned into a system of communicating pools for the convenience of enterprises. The natural process of circulation of water in the Dead Sea is disturbed, which will inevitably lead to an ecological catastrophe. In the coming decades, the sea can completely dry.
Dead Sea coast — One of the most dry and hot places in Israel. Weather practically all year round clear. The amount of precipitation is up to 100 mm per year in the northern part of the Dead Sea and up to 50 mm in the southern part. Around the Dead Sea Zone is due to the effect of a rain shadow in the Jewish Mountains.
Air temperature from May to September here is always higher than +30°C, and in June-August may rise to +45°C. In November, cold, and before April, the temperature on the Dead Sea coast rarely exceeds +25°C. Water temperature from June to September — +32…+34°C. From November to March water in the sea cold to +23°C and lower.
Most people can not be in the water for a long time — It will be too cold relative to the temperature of the human body. In January and February, minor precipitation can fall. In winter, water in the sea is warmer than air, and in summer — vice versa. Most comfortable months for rest at the resorts of the Dead Sea — April, May and October. It is in the same months that the water temperature corresponds to the standards of medical and rehabilitation centers — +26…+28°C.
In the vicinity of the Dead Sea, a lot of attractions — both natural and architectural. Resting on one of the wellness resorts, you can rent a car and explore the surroundings of one of the most saline lakes in the world, as well as the Jewish desert.
Canyon Creek Bokeble — One of the most beautiful places in the Jewish desert. Located ten minutes walk from Ein Bokk. There are several climbing routes of varying degrees of complexity that can be passed only with special equipment. Route for tourists who are alien to extreme sports, designed for 45 — 60 minutes and ends near the waterfall. You can swim in the stream.
Masada fortress — Ruins of an ancient fortress that served as a shelter to King Idod and his family. Masada is located on the top of one of the rocks of the Jewish desert. Now on the territory of the archaeological complex the ruins of the Palace of Herod, synagogues, baths, the Byzantine monastery, water tanks, as well as fragments of wall paintings and mosaics are preserved. An incredible views of the Jewish Desert and the Dead Sea open from the mountain.
Cumran National Park — The place where the famous dead sea scrolls have been found having a huge historical significance. Now most of the scrolls are kept in “Temple of book” in Jerusalem, another part — In the Bible Museum in Washington. In the territory of the National Park, the construction of the second temple is concentrated. Visitors can see the catchment tank and plumbing, pottery workshop, stoves for firing ceramics and baking bread, mills, laundry, stall and much more. Residential buildings in Kumran were not found, which causes many questions from scientists.
Mamshit National Park — Ancient Nabatay city, once standing in the path of incense. Mamshit preserved to this day significantly better than other Nabatie cities. The archaeological complex is represented by the ruins of temples, residential buildings and administrative premises, pools, sewage system, as well as large fragments of mosaic, arches and transitions, stairs, separately standing columns. Even Nabatie and Roman tombstones survived.
Ein Gedi Reserve — Oasis of incredible beauty in the heart of the Jewish desert. In antiquity, the city was also located here, but only the foundations of buildings and mosaic floors were preserved to this day. The surrounding landscape is impressive much more: the river flows on the giant boulders and rocks, while driving around with smallest waterfalls. In the reserve for water, you can often see wild animals: Damanov, mountain goats, foxes and gazelles.
Sodom — Mountain, almost fully formed by salt sediments and stretching 8 kilometers along the south-west coast of the Dead Sea. To the biblical city with bad glory, this mountain has nothing to do — except that one of the rocks resembling a female figure is called “wife Lota”. But Especially Mount Sodom is interesting to caves with stalactites, stalagmites and petrified ancient organisms. It is here that Malham is — the longest solar salt cave in the world.
The nearest airport to the resorts of the Dead Sea — Ben-Gurion. You can only get to the selected resort on Egged or Taxi bus. Taxi will be very expensive, and there are no direct buses from the airport to the Dead Sea.
To recover after the flight, you can spend one or two nights in Jerusalem or Tel Aviv, from where you can get to the Dead Sea for 2 — 3 hours. Planning the route, you need to remember that from the evening of Friday until the evening of Saturday, public transport in Israel does not go — Shabbat celebrate in the country.
From the airport Ben-Gurion
Those who decided to go to the Dead Sea immediately after passing passport control, will have to get from the airport to the selected resort with transfers in Jerusalem. Between the main airport of Israel and Jerusalem round the clock run busier “Afikim”. Interval between flights — Exactly one hour, the time on the way depends on the workload of the roads, but on average, it takes a little more than an hour. The minibus arrives at the main bus station of Jerusalem. Fare — 16 Shekels.
Recently from the airport “Ben-Gurion” In Jerusalem began to walk trains. They depart from the 2nd platform every half from 6:30 to 19:30 and arrive at the new railway station “Yitzhak Navon”, Located near the main bus station and the tram stop on Jaffa Street. The path takes only 24 minutes. Then you need to reach the main station and find the platform from which the right bus is sent.
From the main bus station of Jerusalem to the Dead Sea can be reached by buses №444 or № 486. Travel time — from 1.5 to 2 hours depending on the workload of the roads and destination; fare — 37.5 Shekels. Routes are thought out in such a way as to the tourists who came out of the bus did not have to get to hotels. So, in Ein-Bokek, buses of both routes make 4 stops.
Treatment on the Dead Sea can be combined with a full beach holiday on the Red Sea. From Eilat you can go to the Dead Sea for a day or stay at one of its resorts for a few days. The railway network in the south of the country is not yet developed, but the bus number 444 regularly runs from Eilat, which makes several stops in the resort villages of the Dead Sea.
From any city by car
In Israel, high-quality roads and a developed car rental service. You can take the car both in any large town of the country and at the airport, where representatives of several companies providing rental cars are waiting for their customers. The car will allow you to combine wellness holidays on the Dead Sea with sightseeing sightseeing located in its surroundings.
In order not to get lost on complex road junctions, you need to install a navigator application on a smartphone in advance working in offline mode — In some parts of the highway there may be no connection to the network. The only drawback of the car rental in Israel — Horification: high prices for gasoline and many paid roads, so it is more profitable to rent a car to those who rest in the company of three to four people.
Going to relax on the Dead Sea coast, you should know about some of these features that can spoil the impression from one of the most unusual places on the planet. First, it is an overly high prices in hotels and restaurants of the resorts of the Dead Sea, and secondly, the properties of water that can not only heal the body from all diseases, but on the contrary, harm health.
Accommodation and nutrition
The Israeli Dead Sea coast is fully sharpened under the secured tourists. The cost of type b numbers&B in hotels Ein-Bokk — most popular and comfortable resort — starts from $ 120 per night.
As a rule, for this money, the hotel’s guests receive a set of bath accessories of expensive brands, as well as skin care products after bathing in concentrated salty water of the Dead Sea. However, the rating of hotels and reviews on aggregators do not correspond to a high price: guests complain about old renovation in rooms, poor-quality cleaning and cockroaches, dirty dishes in restaurants, as well as indifferent personnel attitude.
Normal dinner in one of the Ein-Box’s restaurants can cost as much as night in the hotel. Book a kitchen apartment will not work — There are no them in Ein-Bokek, like grocery stores where you can buy semi-finished products.
Cheaper accommodation options with good reviews Located in the resort village of Neve Zohar. Those who rented a car for the entire vacation period, you can save at home by stopping the city of Arad. In this case, the nutrition will be much cheaper.
For budget travelers, there is an extreme option: on the Ein-Bokki Public Beach, you can install your tent and prepare food on the fire in the company of backpackers from Europe, USA and other regions of Israel. The main condition for this accommodation — Compliance with purity.
Properties of the Dead Sea
Thanks to the incredibly high salt content and minerals, water in the Dead Sea has a viscous and oily consistency. Fly in such water will not work, but even those who do not know how to do this will be able to resist water. Above the surface of the Dead Sea was formed a special microclimate — Despite the heat, it is almost impossible to burn here, so it is not necessary to use sunscreen.
After bathing in the Dead Sea, the condition of patients with arthritis, gout, osteochondrosis, and t.D. And the air on the coast of the Dead Sea, saturated with evaporated ions of salts and minerals, is useful for ENT diseases. No less severe medical effect possess the dirt of the Dead Sea — or bottom deposits from the bottom. They are especially valued among vaccination with skin diseases.
At the same time, the skin of different people can react differently to the composition of the Water of the Dead Sea: some small wounds are quickly tightened, and others, on the contrary, begin to dig.
Swimming in one of the most salty lakes on the planet is not as safe as it seems at first glance. Before entering the water, you need to wear swimming glasses — Wheeling into the eyes of water will quickly start eating the mucous membrane. It is also better to not allow water to get into the nose and throat. If the water still falls into the eyes, you need to grumble tightly, and, having passed the shore with the help of another person, rinse with fresh water.
In the Dead Sea, it is not recommended to bathe people with heart and high pressure, as well as pregnant women — On the shore there are warning signs. All the rest can be in water up to 15 — 20 minutes, and not more than once a day.
For rest at the Dead Sea, it is better to buy an inexpensive swimsuit that will not be sorry to throw — Concentrated salted water hopelessly spoil colored fabric. For a more comfortable bathing, you can buy coral slippers.
At the resorts of the Dead Sea, there are enough shops where salt and dirt are sold at a high price. But the gifts of nature can be used for free from the shore and take with them in plastic containers. Before packing containers in a suitcase, you should make sure of their tightness — Dead Sea Salt can hopelessly spoil beloved things.