Do not think about the bog
The first swamps appeared approximately 400 million years ago. And today they occupy about 2% of the whole earthly sushi. The most wetland – South America. He is busy with swamps by 70%! Eurasia occupies second place. 37% of all wetlands of the world focused in Russia. Especially highlighted here Western Siberia.
The swamps, as a rule, arise in two ways: due to soil fears or due to reservoir. In stagnant water, oppressed trees quickly die and stop sucking water from the ground. Soil, deprived of air access, quickly scums, the composition of vegetation changes. And along with the change of the landscape, the fauna changes. So the areas of forests and meadows turn into a swamp. (Previously, "My Planet" wrote, why Zasazyayet’s bog).
If you see along the roadside the trees "on the belt" in the water, it is quite possible that it is pissing literally the lower swamp. Such appear in the rivers rivers, ravine or clarifying lakes. Here, groundwater climbs close to the surface, water is stiring, causing changes in the ecosystem. In our time, quite often, such febrisies are carrying anthropogenic character (they made the road, breaking the drain into the nisin, built the dam, flooding the surrounding lands, and t. NS.). From flooded places, hoofs leave (except, perhaps moose), rodents and those who hunt them, but tadpoles and frogs appear, and behind them – herons, storks, cranes, raccoon dogs. Bobras will build your dams. The vegetation will appear, replacing the roots, and with the time the swamp will turn into a meadow. And on it will rise a new forest.
Low swamps are often young. They only began to be formed, but their peat layer, formed by the semicraded vegetable mass, is growing and over time. Such a swamp may come to the top of evolution and will become a real horse marsh! And maybe it will not. The main thing is that there is always a feedback fresh water. Floods bring the life of swamps enriching oxygen water, delivering new feed.
Why need peat?
Peat – essential raw materials! It makes thermal insulation materials. In peat tablets and cups grow seedlings. Peat edema even power plants. They improve the soil (peat increases acidity, if the soil is too alkaline, disinfects, eliminates it from pathogenic microflora, makes it loose).
Peat – renewable resource. Unless, of course, not to get it barbaric way, fully ending the swamp. The most terrible fires occur next to peat-workers. Delicious peat dried, self-proposal and burns for years. Extra layers are roasted, and as a result, whole villages sometimes literally fall into the fiery.
But the classical, the most famous picture of the swamps with thick carpets of moss and generous berries belongs to the other type of swamp – upper. Such most often are formed on water-seated spaces and are powered by atmospheric precipitation, in which very few mineral salts. Typical rolling swamp is a carpet from peat (sphagnum) mosses. They grow so abundantly that they threaten to absorb all the rest of the vegetation. But some representatives of the flora adapted to such a neighborhood. For example, Cranberry. It entangles the moss pillows with thin, but very strong threads and always remains upstairs, and low-spirited shrubs (like a rose) grow up every year exactly the same value as Mosses. Mossi grow very slowly. To achieve a one-meter meter length, a sfagnum stalk will need about 2,000 years!
Why do I need mossi?
Moss-sfagnums are hygroscopic and have a bactericidal property, they disinfect water, which is stored in the swamp. They, like peat, make swamps by a giant planet filter. Dried and cut moss-sfagnum applied in crop production. It is mixed with the soil so that it is loose and saved moisture. Moss-Sfagnum picks moisture 20-25 times more than its own weight! That is, in order to absorb the same amount of water, it would take several times more wool than moss!
Mossi grow very slowly. To achieve a one-meter meter length, a sfagnum stalk will need about 2,000 years!
High swamps – the most generous. But before the MAs form a living mountain above the peat deposits and the lower swamp will become a runway, the reservoir passes the transition stage. Here they meet both herbaceous plants and shrubs – the soils are poor, and the plants have to fill the deficit of the organicists. Therefore, it is precisely on such swamps that plants predators are often found. On tropical swamps, it is non-tenty with bright modifiable leaves forming trashing jugs. In such jugs come across small insects, mostly ants. And on our swamps you can meet Rosyanka. She is so small that we often pass by, without noticing it. And only in a magnifying glass you can carefully consider the adhesive Rosinki, to which small midges and mosquitoes stick.