Dubrovnik (Dubrovnik) – The city located on the Adriatic coast in the southern part of Croatia, 624 km from Zagreb. Major Seaport and Popular International Resort. Population – 43,770 people (2001).
It is assumed that Dubrovnik was founded in the second half of the 6th century by residents of the epidaur destroyed by Avarian tribes (now Cavtat). They founded the city on a small rocky island called Laus and called His Raguisium (Ragusa).
A little later, in front of the island, the Slavic settlement arose «Dubrava», Subsequently, transformed into Dubrovnik (named after numerous oak groves in the vicinity).
Gradually, the settlement of Ragusa and Dubrovnik merged into one city, separated by their duoka dried, and the central street of the city appeared in her place – Stradun.
Thanks to the maritime trade, the city actively developed and by the middle of the XV century became an independent Dubrovnitsky Republic, able to compete with Venice. The golden period in development accounts for the XV-XVII century, it was at that time he gained his magnificent architectural appearance, for which he now called "Pearl Adriatic".
At 8 am on April 6, 1667, a catastrophic earthquake occurred in Dubrovnik, as a result of which more than 5,000 inhabitants were killed, including the ruler. Most urban structures were destroyed (about 70%), only powerful protective urban walls of the city remained intact elements, as well as the Sponge Palace and the Facade of the Rector Palace.
After this tragedy, construction in Dubrovnik was conducted on a clear plan, in which the width of the streets and the size of the quarters, as well as the city’s area, which from the Middle Ages remained in the old town of almost unchanged.
Today, Dubrovnik is incorporated into the top three of the most beautiful European cities-monuments of the Renaissance, and is also a major tourist center and an international marine port.
It is worth noting that Dubrovnik is separated from the main territory of Croatia by a 9-kilometer sector of the coast owned by Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to get to Dubrovnitsko-Neretvian Copy, the center of which is Dubrovnik, and not to leave the border of Croatia, will have to overcome the distance of about 15.5 km on the ferry.
Dubrovnik is located in a subtropical climatic belt, winter here is warm, and from May to October stands summer heat. Abundant precipitation falls out at the end of the year (November-December), the average annual rate – 1037 mm.
Average daytime temperature in the tourist season from May to October +24….+28° C, the average temperature of the water from June to October – 22 … 25 ° C (in August, the wipe is the most warm, and in May about 18 °).
Bathing season in Dubrovnik lasts usually from the end of May to mid-October.
Sea off the coast of Dubrovnik, a famous traveler and explorer Jacques Yves Cousto considered one of the cleanest in the Adriatic.
Beaches in Dubrovnik mainly platform and pebble, But there are also rocky shores and even sand. Full sandy beaches are located on the islands of Koloch and Lopud.
Beach Lapad (LAPAD Beach) – This pebble beach is the most popular and large in the city. There are showers, cabins where you can change clothes, umbrellas and deck chairs.
Beach Ban (Banje Beach) – This pebble beach is located next to the old town, it offers a magnificent view of the historic center of Dubrovnik and the island of Locks.
Modern Dubrovnik is divided into an old and new city.
old town – Located within the massive defensive wall and is the historical core of Dubrovnik, who preserved the spirit of the medieval Mediterranean.
New town – Basically built up at the end of the 19th – early 20th centuries, and therefore modern low-rise architecture prevails here.
Stradun (Stradun) – Main Street of the historic center of Dubrovnik and one of the most popular places for walking in numerous tourists. This 300 meter street passes throughout the old city from the east to west, connecting Western entrance to the city «Gate Pila», With the eastern "Gate of Pitch".
Stradun became the main street of Dubrovnik in the 7th century, and the modern architectural appearance of this street, mainly formed after a powerful earthquake of 1667, due to which most buildings in the city were destroyed. Prior to that, the construction was not fulfilled in a single style, but after the earthquake, a law was adopted, determining the unified architectural appearance of the city.
Big Fountain Onofrio (Velika Onofrijeva &# 269; ESMA) – is one of the most famous attractions of Dubrovnik was built in 1438, the Neapolitan architect Onofrio de la Cava. Is located on the main urban street Stradun, near the gate of PIL.
Initially, the fountain of Onofrio had two floors, but the earthquake of 1667 destroyed the upper floor, and he no longer restored. Each of the 16 sides of the fountain is decorated with a magnificent carved medallion, in the middle of which there is a water crane.
In the past, water for the fountain of Onofrio and other others were served on a specially built aqueduct for this, leading to a mining source in the vicinity of the city.
The fountain is a popular meeting place at the locals, here you can relax after excursions in the city, and in the evening it is very beautifully highlighted.
Princely Palace (KNE&# 382; EV DVOR) or Rector’s Palace (Rector’s Palace) – was founded in the 13th century as a fortress, which by the 14th century was rebuilt into the palace. Castle
In 1435, the palace was partially destroyed by explosions, because of which until 1463 was on large-scale reconstruction. In 1667, the building was also very injured during an earthquake, the consequences of which for the palace were restored for about 30 years.
Until 1808, he was a princely residence, and now the city historical museum is currently located here.
Dubrovnik City Walls (Dubrova&# 269; Ke Gradske Zidine) – Massive defensive stone walls with towers surrounding the old town. This complex structure is one of the largest and most complete in Europe, as well as one of the business cards of Dubrovnik.
Dubrovnik walls have a length of 1940 meters, the average thickness from the sea from 1.5 to 3 meters, from the land side from 4 to 6 meters, and the maximum height of up to 25 meters.
Most of the existing walls and fortifications were built in the 14th and 15th century, but even expanded and strengthened until the 17th century.
The walls were built so firmly that they practically did not suffer during a powerful earthquake in 1667, as a result of which most of the city was destroyed.
Dubrovnik’s fortress walls are one of its main attractions, you can bypass almost the entire Old Town and they offer great views of the city and surroundings.
Sponge Palace (Pala&# 269; A Sponza) – One of the most beautiful buildings of Dubrovnik and one of his main architectural monuments. It was built in the period from 1516 to 1521 in the Gothic style of the Renaissance.
At various times, the building was used as customs, treasury, bank and a mint, and now there is a state archive here, with many vintage historically valuable documents.
Sponz Palace is located in the Old Town, on the left side of the Popular area of the Lodge Square.
Fort Loverenac (TVR&# 273; Ava Lovrijenac) – Powerful fortress in Dubrovnik, located 37 meter protruding in the sea, cliff, west of the old city.
For the first time, the fortress is mentioned in the 11th century, at that time the Venetians planned to build their fortress here, and if they managed it, they most likely kept the entire area under control, but in Dubrovnik, they learned about these plans and for 3 months they managed to build their own fortress for 3 months, ahead of the most enemies.
The current appearance has acquired a fortress only in the 14th century and after that a few more times was rebuilt.
During the earthquake of 1667, the Fortress of the Loverian suffered a lot, but was promptly restored.
Fort Loverenac has a triangular shape and occupies the entire vertex of the rock, in the western walls of the city. It was built in such a way that the maximum reflect possible attacks from the sea, because the thickness of its walls from the sea here comes to 12 meters, and from the city side – a little more than half a meter.
Over the gates in the Fort Latin, the motto "Non Bene Pro Toto Libertas Venditur Auro" was written, which roughly means: "Freedom is not for sale for any kind of treasures of the world".
Today, the fortress is a popular tourist attraction, there are bright theatrical submissions and the famous summer festival of Dubrovnik.
Dubrovnik International Airport (Dubrovnik Airport) – Located 20 km from the city.
From Moscow, the summer season in Dubrovnik make regular flights Aeroflot and S7 Airlines, but they are usually space tickets, so if you want to fly a regular flight, sometimes cheaper to fly to Dubrovnik through one of the European cities.
Also in the summer season from Moscow to Dubrovnik there are numerous charter flights – Transaero and some others. Tickets for them are usually sold by tour operators as part of a tour package with accommodation.
Time in flight from Moscow to Dubrovnik – About three hours.
From Zagreb to Dubrovnik, the flights are airlines Croatia Airlines, travel time – about 1 hour.
Church of Holy Wish (CRKVA SV. Vlaha), Also known as Church of St. Mistore – Beautiful Catholic Church, located on the square of the bed in the old town.
It was built from 1706 to 1715 on the site of the old Romanesque church, surviving the earthquake of 1667, but burned in 1706.
The temple got a richly decorated facade with a baroque style portal, decorated with sculptures of holy whale and other saints and a wide staircase in front of the entrance – a favorite place for visits from tourists.
In the church, the sculpture of Holy Whald, holding the model of the old medieval Dubrovnik, as he was still before the earthquake of 1667.
Find the church of Holy Wish is easy – it is located at the end of the main urban street Stradun.
Franciscan Monastery in Dubrovnik (Franjeva&# 269; ki samostan i crkva) – It is a monastery complex, founded in 1317 and located in the western part of the city, immediately behind the gate of PIL, not far from the highest tower of the fortress walls of the Old Town – Mingchet Tower.
In the monastery complex, in addition to the monastery itself, also includes an old church, a bell tower, an old pharmacy, operating from the 14th century to the present day (one of the oldest in Europe), a library with a major assembly of ancient manuscripts and a museum.
The construction of the monastery lasted until the end of the 14th century, it was at this time that most buildings of the complex were built.
The Church of the Franciscan Monastery was considered one of the richest in the city, however, as a result of the earthquake of 1667, it was almost destroyed, like the entire monastery complex, which today’s appearance of which is very close to the initial.
Cathedral of the Ascension of the Virgin Mary (Dubrova&# 269; Ka Kedrala) – Catholic Cathedral in Dubrovnik, Popular tourist attraction and architectural monument in the style of Italian baroque.
The building of the Cathedral is in place, where the churches also stood in the past, the earliest of which belongs to the 6th century. In the 7th century, the Romanesque Church was built here, stood before the catastrophic earthquake of 1667.
After the earthquake, the construction of the current cathedral began, which lasted almost 30 years. As a result, a cathedral appeared in the traditions of Italian baroque, with three nephos and three apsides, decorated with a large baroque dome.
The main treasures of the Cathedral – a collection of more than 200 ancient relics of religious art, many of which have a huge cultural and artistic value.
Dominican Monastery in Dubrovnik (Dominikanski Samostan I CRKVA) – was founded by Dominicans in 1225 and was built up to the 14th century. Located in the northeastern part of the Old Town, surrounded by city walls and fortresses of revuls.
The building of the monastery was greatly injured as a result of a powerful earthquake of 1667, but were restored by monks and citizens.
Architecturally, the center of the Dominican Monastery is his covered gallery built by the Florentine architect Michelozz-Di-Bartholomeo.
In the eastern part of the monastery complex there is a museum in which the web of religious art is being stored 15-16 centuries in Venetian style, as well as various ancient religious relics.