Forgotten Russian professions: who kissed the kiss
In 1718, Peter I issued a decree on street lighting of the city of St. Petersburg. No sooner said than done. They gained special people, each of which served 15 lamps: he lied, quenched, cleaned, filled, changed the wrapped wick.
The first lights burned only until midnight and only in munfully nights. Just no more than 18 per month, and only from September to May. This miracle of equipment was refueling with hemp oil: "For food a pleasant taste, but it is not so light, because it is made of raw hemp, the other, of dry cannals, is not in the bridge.". Flashrosters rightly believed that the sin of good disappear, since it still burns so-so, and part of the lamppost went to the family table.
It was the lanterns of that time and another property: they splashed. "Next, for the sake of God, then from the lantern! And rather how much you can pass by. These are happy, if you finish the fact that it will fill your Southgolian Sultuke with your oven, "he warned Gogol in Nevsky Prospect.
Through the century, alcohol came to replace oil. The hard work of the flashroads, who from the post to the post with a cargo, had to go on a day about 6 km, acquired an additional charm. While he made his usual circumference, the alcohol for the lanterns was becoming less and less, and in the abdomen of a flashroad, on the contrary, more and more. So the expression appeared "Back.
The authorities of theft of state ownership did not understand and began to add a strongly smelling liquid in alcohol. For the experiment, the head of the city lighting Firemior Bering called to himself a famous love for the alcohol subordinate. Mixed the "cocktail", raised him and asked: "Well, how?"And I heard:" Nothing, Your Excellency! Speed, and you can drink.
Part of the lamp refueling went to the family table
In 1863, a competition was announced on improving street lighting. His French Baltal won him, defeating the Russian invention – the lantern who worked on pine cones – offered to use kerosene. On the streets it became lighter, fashionably dressed people loved to make an evening mound – now it was already possible to see each other. Well, then the progress rushed to drag and soon people could not live without electricity. Lights began to turn on automatically, and the work of the lamp lost the relevance.
The strange name of Tahil under himself a very prosaic essence: the bodies were called people responsible for collecting files, trade and customs duties, execution of court decisions. These are the great-grandfathers of our tax authorities, customs officers and bailiffs. Chose to this post in the counties and posads the most worthy of the whole world. When joined the post, the candidate kissed the cross, obliging to serve to be honest.
The arrears launched on the shoulders of the bodice as a personal debt in the treasury
The first mention of the bodies is found in the judiciary of 1497. Until the XVII century, they acted independently, helping Zemsky, lifting elders to catch thieves and robbers, collecting Podachi and T. D., And after troubled time, they switched to the rank of officials, but without their rights.
Moreover, the bodies required guarantees that fees from year to year will not decrease. If it happened, the arrears went to the shoulders of the bodice as his personal debt in the treasury.
It is believed that the adjective "lip" in relation to the bodies arose due to the capture of thieves and robbers, which later sent to the cautious or executed. They began to be helped by criminens. True, according to Nikolai Karamzin, the word "lip", in the ancient German law meant the estate, was transferred to the domestic soil as "parish" or "department".
From the XIX century, the kolovolniki began to call people who also blocked in their honesty on the cross, but quite different about another. These were wine shops traders, who are not allowed not to dilute wine.
Zolotari were in the city of people important and necessary, and paid them a lot. But women from them turned away, wrinkling his nose: it smelled too badly. Nomouder, because golden-duty gases had to constantly deal with uncleanness.
The duties of the "Sanitars of the city" included the cleaning of landfits and maintain order on the streets, where, in addition to horse manure, they accumulated straight out of the windows and garbage. Celded pits were cleaned with a bucket, the contents merged into the barrel and at night solemnly exported to the city trait. The townspeople in the joke called the contents of the "night gold", hence the name "Golotar".
Gilyarovsky described such a picture. On the dark streets (the lanterns are repaid on the occasion of the moon night) drags the wave of a tens of one and a half a cart with barrels. In barrels, silent albeit splashes on each irregularity. On the rope seat between the horse and barrel, the golden. Towards traveling on the main street – Tver, past the governor’s house. Suddenly, where neither the firefighters are treated: "Walking the stones of the pavement, ring glasses and the walls of the buildings are shred. Fucking four with barrams rushes through the area along Tverskaya and the Okhotny row, tilting the barrel, and flies on. Barrel up wheels. In the puddle of the floated crap "Zolotar"".
So that the smell was not going anywhere and on the main street. Yes, what’s there, and the newspaper wrote about the Red Square in the 1870s: "From which side, you will come to her – it is necessary to hold the nose".
The townspeople in the joke called the contents of the "night gold", hence the name "Golotar"
In 1887, began to develop a sewage project. In the floodplain of the Moscow River, the residents of the village of Maryino bought the land and arranged the Lublin fields of irrigation on this place. July 30, 1898 earned the first phase of the Moscow sewer, serving 219 houses. And golden evolved in the arrangements.
To tar in the old days was a universal thing. With it was treated all. This is what was written in one old hospital: "The amazing qualities of tar water are specifically visible in the treatment "Anton light" (gangrene). It also cures malignant rye, cuts constipation, heals the outer and inner ulcers, heals from wet colds, from drying, coal in sides, from inflammation of the lungs, extremely kestica with hoodness, thinness, cramps ". Also, tar water helped with "relaxation of members and lobs". (On the most strange recipes of previous times – in our article "Lessons of potion".)
Later birch delet was actively used in cosmetic products. So, soap having a specific smell and low-apparent color was considered a panacea in the restoration of hair, getting rid of dandruff and lice. Without a fly, it was not necessary for the production of black YUFTI (special stretch of skin), from which shoes were made and gathering. They were missing the crowns of wooden log cabins to protect against moisture, lubricated locks and axes of wheels. Pine Degtem ("Var" or "Resin") replaced boats and ropes.
So it is clear: the profession of Degtecura (or Degtyar) was in demand and revered. Andrei Shustikov ethnographer, who traveled at the end of the XIX century in the Vologda province, in his essay "Troinin Kadnikovsky County" spoke about the device of the Degtyar Plants and Fishery.
Birch delet was mined from Berriest, which was rushed from 10 to 30 June, and the "trust of the stump" for a pine fly took place in the spring. The construction of the plant, according to the ethnographer, was working for everyone: "It is arranged a race of shed. Then the stoves are knocked out in this shed, 4 clay cubes are drawn to the top of each furnace. One end of such a cube is made on targets for tar – from sheet iron, and for resin – from the aspen tree. Pipes from cubes pass through the refrigerator (Chan filled with ice or snow) to the ears ".
From each Cuba opened a day of pure resin about 1 pound, and tar – about 30 pounds. This volume in the area under investigation provided 200 private plants. It seems a lot. But the profession is dying, income falls. If 10-12 years ago, up to 200,000 poods were smoked annually, now it is almost 80,000, and the income of the population has decreased four times. Marits Railways and Oil. "Such a rapid decline … is due to those in the 1st, that at present the railways were held everywhere in Russia and, therefore, on the lubricant of the wheels, for the declaration of irregular fishery, the tar and resins were not required, and in the 2nd – opening In the Caucasus a huge amount of oil, replaced by our dispatch, "writes Shustikov. Over time, this profession, like the first three, disappeared at all.
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