From minstrels to "Marseolese"

Ancient Galla, sharing hundreds of tribes, often bent among themselves, which probably contributed to the sophisticated nature of their shrines. By the way, one of these tribes, Parisians, settling at the bottom stream of the Seine River, near the Romans-founded Lutery fortress, gave the name of the modern capital of France – Paris.

Interphemmed gravestones, weakened the country, providing a good service to ingenians. This was used by the Roman Republic, which in 220 before. NS. subjugated to herself southern, Cesalpian Gallia. Attachment of the south, preparatively easily, inspired the Romans for further feats. So, in 58 BC. NS. Legions of invincible Latins moved deep into "Wild" Transalpian Gaul for final conquest. At the head of the army stood a young Roman aristocrat, Consul Guy Julius Caesar. Here, in Gaul, for the first time his teamic gift manifested.

For eight years, galls desperately resisted. But the strength was on the side of Rome, and divided into four provinces: Narbonic and Lugaduan Gallia, Belgik and Aquitaine, Gallium is part of the Roman Empire. Since that time, a frisky Gallic cockerel is under the watchful approach of the Roman Eagle for the good six hundred years.

Antique civilization, actively embedded in the Gallic Wednesday, gave rise to a new culture, called the Gallo-Roman. After a century, with a small gallium, becomes one of the developed countries of the Empire. In the first centuries of our era, Christianity comes to the country.

Starting from the end of the III century in Gallia, scattered German tribes penetrate, better known under the name of francs. The tribal Union of Franks has developed in the III century.NS. In the lower reaches of Rhine. In the 4th century, francs dissipated in northeastern Gaul as the Allies of the Roman Empire and, living apart from the rest of the Galova-Roman population, did not have a novel. Franks were divided into two groups: Salic, who lived at the sea coast, and Ripaoic, located east of the Masa River. Of the princely dynasties that managed disparate tribes, the greatest power reached Meroving – the rulers of salic francs. Their legendary heroes are considered meruries ("Born by sea"). Third Representative of the Dynasty – Chlodwig (481-511.), distributing your power on all francs, a little later assigned myself a royal title. Having gathered a big army at the beginning of 486, he captured Susson and all of Northern Gallia, and in 507, Franks won Aquitain in 507.

In 496, Chlodwig, together with a friend, adopts the Christian faith from Rome. From this time, a very friendly relationship between Frankish kings and dads is established. With sons and grandchildren, Chlodvius was subordinate to Burgundy. And later, as a result of the war with isgotes, Frank captured Provence.

The Frankish state, thus, occupied almost all Gallia and a significant part of modern Germany. At the same time, the last kings from the Meroving Dynasty lost real power, while retaining only the title. They are negligiously called "Lesy kings". The actual power passed to the majority (from Lat. "MajoRDomus" – "Senior in the courtyard") who personified tax harvesting, royal property and commanding troops.

In 687, Majord Pipin Geristalsky began to rule all the Frankish state. Later, the dynasty founded by him received the name Caroling (named the most outstanding Frankish king Charles Great).

During the Board of Carroling, the state significantly strengthened and expanded, turning into the empire. After the death of Pipina Geristalsky, the vague period began in the country. But his successor is Karl Martel (715-741.) I managed to suppress troubles and strengthen my sole power, and also reflect the risk of Arab invasion. Conquered the Pyrenean Peninsula Arabs made robbing trips to Aquitain, right up to Loire. In 732, Karl Martel in the battle of Poitier defeated the Arab army. In honor of the victory of Karl and received the nickname of Martel ("hammer"). Having strengthened its position in all regions of the Franksky state, Majord was needed sooner or later to declare his claim to the royal throne. So came the son of Karl Martel Pipin II Short. To capture the throne had a legitimate appearance, he turned to the message to Pope Roman. In it, he asked to clarify who should be king of francs: the one who has the power, or the one who uses only the title. The answer was simple and short: "The king should be only the one who has real power!" Very instructive and useful advice, and not only for major. After answering Pope Stefan II, he collected Frankish to know and was proclaimed by the king.

The last Meroving Hilderic III and his son were tonsured in monks. For support of Pipin generously gave the church. In 754 and 757, francs made two campaign against Langobards. The land in the area of ​​the Rome were dying and equal to Pope Stefan II ("Dar Pipina"). So there was a papal region – the secular possession of the Roman dads, which existed until 1870. Its residue is a modern Vatican. The greatest power of the Frankish state reached in Carlo Great (768-814.). Being an outstanding commander and statesman, he became a hero of numerous legends, tales and songs. In 774, Karl Great Makes his first trip to Italy against Langobards, as a result of which all their possessions are captured.

In 778, he, by going to Pyrenees, entered Spain, reaching the Zaragoza, but having met the strongest resistance, retreated. On the way back, the arjergard of his troops under the command of Marquraf Roland (Karl’s nephew) fell into the ambush to the Basques and was destroyed. This episode was based on the heroic epic "Song of Roland". As a result of the subsequent trips, the franc walked from Arabs the northeastern part of Spain along with Barcelona.

A long war francs had to lead with saksami, inhabited by the space between the Lower Rhine and Elbe. This war lasted over thirty years (772-804.) and cost big victims on both sides. The conquest of huge territories has long expanded the boundaries of the Franksky state. Now it extended from the River Ebro and Barcelona to Elba and the Baltic Sea, from La Mans to the Middle Danube and Adriatic, including almost all Italy and occupying a significant part of the former Western Roman Empire, including her capital – Rome. And Karl Great Not wanting to be content with more than the title of King Frankov, claimed the title "World Monarch", "Emperor". Conceived – done, and in 800,. Being in Rome, he cried "Crown of Roman emperors". The empire recreated by the Frankish king only by the title was like an ancient Roman empire, in fact she was less geographically and much weaker in military administrative terms. After the death of its founder, the empire broke up.

Began civilians between the heirs of Karl. In 843, a contract was concluded in Verden on the section of the Karl Empire between His grandchildren. On the lands of newly educated kingdoms subsequently formed three Western European nationalities: French, German and Italian.

Last Carrolings lost power over powerful magnates and with difficulty held the royal title, challenged by the rival family of Robertinov, who owned Paris and the Paris-surrounding county.

When the Karoling Dynasty of Louis lazily ended with the death of Louis lazy, France’s magnates without hesitation were elected by the King of Robertin – Gogo Kappets (Gugo Ggorod), who founded the kapeting dynasty, who reigns along with her side lines up to the French revolution.

At the beginning of the XIV century, the international situation of France deteriorated, and the country was plunged into the world’s longest in world history, the name of the centenary (1337-1453.).

The main cause of the war was the struggle for the southwestern regions of France, where the English possessions were still preserved. And the reason for it was the dynastic claims of the English king Eduard III to the French throne. Know the King of Philip Vi Valua – representative of the side line of the dynasty of cappeps.

War was conducted in France. The British defeated victory. Fatal for France turned out to be a battle for Poitiers, where the British of the Nedola was broken by French troops. The overwhelming part of the French knights died or was in captivity. The British occupied all Northern France and besieged Orleans. Everything became clear, the fate of the country is solved, since, taking this fortress, the enemy rushes to the south, and it will be impossible to stop it. The awareness of this bitter circumstance raised the people to war.

The brightest manifestation of folk patriotism was the performance of Zhanna d’Ark, who at the head of the big troops hurried to the rescue of the precipitated Orleans. The ancient prediction of the young Verine was passed from the mouth of the mouth, which will save France, so the appearance of Jeanne d’Ark many perceived as the accomplishment of this prophecy.

From minstrels to moselles

In May 1429, the French won the French, and the British were gone from under Orleans. It was a crucial moment during the Central War.

In the spring of 1430. Zhanna d’Ark with a small detachment came to captivity. The court of the Inquisition sentenced her to burn. It was burned at the fire on May 30, 1431 in Ruang. The execution of Zhanna D’Ark did not change the course of war, by 1453 the French territory was released from the British, and military actions stopped.

On the Board of Francis I, France is drawn into a series of Italian wars. The failures of these trips contributed to the development of discontent in the country. One of the forms of protest was a departure from Catholicism and an appeal to Calvinism.

In 1559, the King of Heinrich II was killed in the tournament in honor of the end of the Italian war. The throne inherited his son Francis II, in which power fell to relatives of his wife Queen Mary Stewart – Gizam. Giza was headed by an ultra-tolic party, and Burbones, their opponents in the struggle for power were Calvinists. The death of Francis II ended with the Board of GIZOV. With a ten-year king, Karl IX recently became the Queen-mother Ekaterina Medici.

The new government has tried to implement the policies of the partial permission of Calvinism, seeking to prevent civil war, but did not use the authority. A series of wars began, from time to time interrupted by short truce. The most dramatic episode is the Warfolomeev night on August 24, 1572, when the Paris crowd interrupted hundreds of Protestants.

The resulting period of relative stability interrupted new shocks. In 1588, the guests invited to the Royal Council were killed by the orders of the king. In response to this Paris rebelled. Heinrich III fled from the capital and soon died from a fanatic monk knife.

Dynasty Valois stopped. The King of France was to become Heinrich Navarre – Bourbon. Paris was agreed to accept the new king, but the discontent caused his Protestantism. "Paris stands Mesca", – Heinich said and on July 22, 1593 moved to Catholicism. A new dynasty reigned on the French throne. Civil wars ended. Heinrich IV published the Nante Edict, which aimed to reconcile Catholics and Huguenot, – the first edict of violence in Europe.

After civil wars, a stabilization period occurred: the reign of Heinrich IV (1589-1610.), and then the Board of Cardinal Richelieu (1624-1642.), First Minister Louis XII (1610-1643.)

Cardinal Richelieu – one of the main figures of French history. "My main thing was the greatness of the king, my second business was the greatness of the state", – Speaking Cardinal. Whose activities as the first minister, brilliantly continued by his successor – Cardinal Maazarin anticipate "nice" governing body "King Sun" Louis Xiv. From now on France, playing the role "first violin in the European Orchestra", occupied place "Airger". Governing body "Great King" marked the flowering of art, culture and urban planning. All monarchs of Europe imitated Versailles. All french is in fashion. One "Brilliant" The reign replaced Other. Unrestrained luxury, the dominance of the Favorites, the intrigue of the court "Camarilla" have become an integral line of power of the last Burbones. "After us – at least the flood!" – strongly stated Louis XV. AND "flood" It came: July 14, 1789, the rebels of Parisians mastered the Bastilia. So the revolution began, finally shifting the French monarchy. France became a republic, and the royal lily changed the revolutionary tricolor. Great French Revolution, proclaiming "Freedom, equality and fraternity", changed the course of the history of Europe. However, she gave rise to the guillotine – repression conveyor! In those years, France has fallen in full "Tart taste of freedom". In the authorities stood ephemeral governments in the insanity and mired in corruption. In the fall of 1794, Napoleon Bonaparte, having committed a coup, took power into his hands, after a while declare himself with the emperor. France again became the monarchy.

Through many tests, storms and storms had to go through the French ship with banner of Paris before he entered the quiet harbor of a single Europe.

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