Future through the eyes of ancestors
2000th year … Flies, cockroaches and mosquitoes destroyed. There are no more wild animals in the world. Robots freed people from grave labor, giving time for travel and pleasure. Each person takes 16 km on foot daily, at the same time, at its disposal – almost any transport: from personal wings to ultra-speed trains, steamers and aircraft. We collected the prophecies of representatives of the four countries about the future, published 100 years ago.
France in 100 years
In 1899, in France, postcards were made with predictions dedicated to 2000. Sketches about the future came up with an artist Jean-Mark Cote and his colleagues. The first party was intended for the World Exhibition in Paris, which was held in 1900. In total, from 1899 to 1910, a whole series of cards called "in 2000" was published, 87 images lived to this day. At first, postcards predictions were placed in boxes with cigars, and after the ruin of the company – to the products of the toy factory. In an imaginary French future, a difficult job for people make robots, while people have fun and diverse organize their leisure time: traveling on flying vehicles, admire fish through the porther portholes, ride Paris – Beijing, are engaged in water skiing and rollers , exchange voice and video communications with futuristic gadgets.
Came true: The idea of the film-referee is embodied in modern video calls (Skype and others.); Rescue operations on sinking air vessels became possible thanks to helicopters; Analogue of automatic mop serves vacuum cleaners; The human life has become easier thanks to the auxiliary machinery; There are new travel opportunities for air, water and earth.
Not come true: flying police and firefighters; Aerotexi for individual flights; Robotic hairdressers and seamstresses (or rather, they are, but in a barn, experimental order); Machines for the transformation of eggs in chickens. And still, unfortunately, books and knowledge still can not be downloaded to the brain of the schoolchildren on the wires.
Germany in 100 years
His series of futuristic postcards released in 1900 and Germany. 12 Cards were invested in Packaging Production of Chocolate Factory Theodor Hildebrand Und Sohn. These drawings, like French, are dedicated to 2000. The Germans also dream of unlimited freedom for human movements, about the unhindered transmission of sound and images, which will allow watching a live broadcast of a favorite performance at home, and also about the opportunity to manage the climate with the help of "Machines for good weather".
Came true: vessel on wheels; water skiing; Option of overclocking clouds and others.
Not come true: The city under the dome with adjustable climate (however, large shopping centers and the project of artificial islands off the coast of Dubai can be considered as such. the ability to see through the wall (today the camcorder is given this feature); Wings and airships for personal use (however, it is necessary to admit, the movement in the sky has become almost the same intense, as the Germans assumed the Germans ago).
Moscow in 200-300 years
The idea of postcards with predictions in the candies was picked up and embodied in Moscow in 1914: at the confectionery factory "Aenem Partnership" (now "Red October") began to produce products with the name "Moscow of the Future" with the appendix in the form of the corresponding postal card. The whole series consisted of eight futuristic postcards and was accompanied by descriptions of what will be with Matushka-Moscow after 200-300 years. If you believe the predictors from a chocolate factory, then through the century and a half of the Russians expects an environmentally friendly future: "devoid of microbes and dust, perfectly clean the air teet the airships and airplanes … Winter, the same as with us 200 years ago. Snow is the same white and cold "," Petersburg highway is entirely turned into a crystal-ice mirror, which is flying, sliding, elegant Aerosani ". The "Central Station of Air and Earth Communications Communications" delivers passengers on the ground and air "with the speed of telegrams". Moscow-river will turn into a global trading port with transparent water and will serve only for civilians, military ships will be abolished as unnecessary.
To come true, And ahead of schedule: "The pace of life intensified a hundred times"; "To the services of passengers – land and air"; The emergence of the metro and others.
Not come true: It is too early to judge, because the prediction affects 2114-2259.
Thoughts about the future were also published in the magazine "Around the World". In 1900, the magazine, commenting on the studies of Professor Mechnikov, with delight he wrote about the opportunity to manage the life lifespan. "This discovery if eternal youth does not promise us, then in any case, it displays the death of man for many years," says notes. In 1910, one of the authors predicts the appearance of a figurative language, which "will replace the usual letters and sounds, which means that people of different countries can easier to understand each other". In 1929, reflecting on the research of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Hermann, the magazine announced the ambulance of a man in the moon and even possible jumps in the moon. In 1961, in one of the scientific fiction essays posted in the magazine, described the first flight of the space train starting from the tunnel in the center of the Earth.
USA in 100 years
In 2011, an amazing article about the future of America and mankind was accidentally found in the US newspaper archives, written by the American engineer John Elfrite Watkins in 1900 for the women’s magazine Ladies’ Home Journal. A note is called "What can happen in the subsequent century" and contains predictions in 29 masters. In the first rows, the author reports that he consulted with the most educated and conservative minds of America and amounted to a forecast based on a survey of specialists of large national institutions. Many of the prophecies have already come true, others come true in our eyes.
– "Americans for 100 years will grow by 2.5-5 cm, the life expectancy will increase from 35 years to 50. This will result in reforms in the field of medicine, healthy lifestyle, nutrition, sanitation and universal athletics. People will stop living in cities, and settle in the suburbs. At the same time, the road to the center will compile a day minutes and a penny ".
Indeed, if in 1900 the growth of the Americans was 167-170 cm, then by the year 2000 the average resident of the states rose to 175 cm. As for life expectancy, Watkins guessed a common trend, having made a mistake in numbers: in 1900, an American in 1900 lived 47 years old, and in 2000 – 76.8. Life in the suburbs is also very typical for US residents.
– "The temperature of the air in the house can be adjusted, making it warmer or cold, as we adjust the water with the help of a crane".
The prototype of the air conditioner, the first refrigeration machine, appeared in 1902 in the printing house of Brooklyn, but it was not intended to create a pleasant cool to employees, but to combat moisture, worsening the quality of the press.
– "Coal will no longer be used for heating and cooking".
Watkins clarifies: Solid coal people will cease to use between 2050 and 2100, and soft – between 2200 and 2300 years. Hydroenergy will come to replace the dear natural material.
– "Photographs will be transmitted by telegraph for any distances. If a battle occurs in China after a hundred years, his most bright moments will fall into the newspapers in an hour. And photos will transmit natural colors ".
Watkins did not know the term "digital photography", but accurately described the appearance of this know-how.
– "Trains will walk at a speed of 2 miles per minute (3.22 km / min). And expressions – 150 miles per hour (241 km / h) ".
Now this is not the limit. In April 2015, the Japanese train on the magnetic cushion acted to 603 km / h.
– "You can get to the UK from the United States in two days".
Watkins predicted ultra-speed trips to electrical ships, which can boom ocean at a speed of 96 km / h. It was assumed that these ships would fly over the waves, without touching water, and during the storm dive under the water and to lose bad weather there.
The fastest today, the Australian ship Francisco is able to develop speed up to 107 km / h, the path from New York to Liverpool at the limiting speed would take about 50 hours on this ship, so Watkins’s forecast can be considered.
Also come true: the appearance of tanks, mobile phones, wireless communication, television, webcams, x-rays and synthesizers; availability of education for all; The emergence of greenhouses for growing giant fruits; Finished food is sold in stores; People will use underground transport to move.
Not come true: mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches will be practically destroyed; There will be no wild animals on the planet; A person will take 10 miles per day (16 km), and one who is not capable of such long walks will be considered as a weak. Three letters of the English alphabet – C, X and Q – will come out of use as unnecessary; English will become the most common language in the world, and in second place will be Russian (the prophecy has come in part); Large cities will be cleaned of cars.
Of course, it was not the only prediction of the future issued in the USA. In 1881, Harper’s magazine published an image of the future Skyscrapers of Manhattan in the performance of the caricaturist of Thomas Nasta – in those days when the highest building in New York was the church of the Trinity with a height of 73 m. And in 1915, exactly 100 years ago, an interview with the inventor of Thomas Edison, in which he predicted the emergence of ultrathin and light books, which will need the entire library (modern reader), light furniture made of steel (read: aluminum) and the development of civilian Aviation, which will allow people to have to have breakfast in London, during the day to be in Paris, and dinner on chipside ".