Garden from test tubes

At the Bulanikovo railway station, which is not far from Moscow, a man is met in yellow glasses, like Raul Duke from "Fear and Hate in Las Vegas". This is the Fermer Experimentator Andrei Borisovich Diev. In his youth, he worked in the defense industry, and came to crop production through a flower circle. Now he is the head of the farm "Lesovik-Kennel". Dreams of the perfect garden and the desire to landscaping large-scale spaces led Dye to the idea of ​​obtaining cuttings by cloning.

We go past endless garages and business blocks. So you will not say that behind the gates of one of them is a laboratory, where Andrei Borisovich is engaged in adaptation and cultivation of cloned plants.

At the entrance there are several Chinese tractors Feng Shou 180-3. They are not produced for a long time, so Andrei Borisovich hunts every specimen. Says even ghosting up to the motor such a tractor remains on the go. Cedars, spherical cherries and other color plants grow in the backyard. This is the memory of the passion of Andrei Borisovich Luxury-landscaping in the 90s. He then built alpine roller coaster officials, millionaires and other peace of this world.

In the laboratory

On the stairs, we enter the room with an autonomous boiler room, polished by measuring instruments: two thermometers in a dry and humid environment – by temperature difference, the humidity of the air, the determinant of the soil acidity and various copyright inventions is calculated. Here are 12 racks with spurners plants planted in peat pills. In each tablet – all the necessary plants for the first time fertilizer and useful bacteria. Racks are covered with two layers of capillary mats and geotextiles – be sure white, for larger refractive. At the same time, 20,000 plants inhabit. Light the beds unusual blue-red LEDs. This author’s way, according to Andrei Borisovich, is more economical and more efficient to use NASA biologists in space for growing salads. Secret – in the use of LEDs of a certain radiation frequency coinciding with the frequency on which chlorophyll gives maximum performance.

In vitro

The scientific laboratory part of the activity, which precedes adaptation, is called microclonal reproduction of plants. This is micro-operation in in vitro, that is, in a test tube. This technique was invented in France in the late 50s of the last century. And already in the 60s in the USSR, scientists of the Institute of Plant Physiology, headed by Raisa Georgievna Butenko.

Experiments opened the possibility of massively and conservation of all varieties to multiply plants that are difficult to multiply with stalling or in any other way.

The habitual shilling for all of us is also cloning, because the new plant is genetically identical to the donor

All begins with the fact that in sterile conditions under a microscope from the top kidney of a suitable (that is, a very small piece of fabric, called the apical meriste, is removed. From this then and grows all the rest – the trunk, roots, leaves.

Sing disinfect to eliminate the possibility of infection with parasites and viruses. Then it is placed in a tube with a nutrient solution where the cells begin to grow and share, forming the microcopy of the first plant. From this micro-separation under the microscope, micro-equipments are cut and placed on the nutrient solution again. From these cuttings, a micro-separation is formed, from which the cuttings are obtained again. So make several times until the right amount of genetically identical plants are formed. Then they are transplanted into special installations for adaptation to life in the open soil. From the moment of receiving the release of apical meristems before the formation of the first microcopy passes from one to six months, and sometimes more.

The habitual shilling for all of us is also cloning, because the new plant is genetically identical to the donor. However, they can be very different, and such a "descendant" may well grow reluctantly and curvly. Microclonation allows you to get an accurate copy of the plant, or even that it is important, a huge number of copies, each of which will be perfectly preserved all the varieties, in contrast to conventional shilling. And the taking of biomaterial directly from the point of growth – the upper kidney – allows you to get a harmoniously folded plant, while the shilling of side branches leads to the fact that it turns out to be curves, because the side branches are not created to grow up. Despite all the listed advantages of cloning, most people are afraid of plants from the test tube, thinking that where the test tube is waiting for the horror of GMOs. But in the process of microcloning, no gene modification does not occur, since the purpose is not changes in the gene, but, on the contrary, its exact copying.

Attack clones

I try not to lag behind Andrei Borisovich and not to go anywhere in the first one – for some reason I am afraid to encounter six-oscillates cloned chimpanzees and other creatures from horror meters about laboratory experiments.

Garden from test tubes

By the way, about animals.

– Why in reproduction of plants with cloning so many advantages over shine, but with cloning of animals, everything is not so simple: they die much earlier? – I ask, peeping on the shelf with tiny primoses.

– I did not deepen in this topic, I know only the history of the lamb of Dolly, which died, without surviving to old age. But I am sure: the case is not in religious things from the category "The creature from the test tube is deprived of the soul, therefore, doomed on death". Just scientists do something wrong. And with plants, too, not everything is smooth. First, many species – for example, coniferous – it is extremely difficult to produce such a method of reproduction. Secondly, cloning depletes genetic information: when everything around clones disappears natural diversity, which causes survival in difficult conditions.

The main problem of cloned plants is that they are all a little "predators"

We go out to the street. Everything seems escort-green after specific lighting in the laboratory.

– The main problem of cloned plants is that they are all a little bit "predators" – continues Andrei Borisovich. – They start life in ideal conditions of test tubes on supernatural sugars. They are then needed to move from vampirism to creation, photosynthesis. First, they do not know how to shrink the dust, there are no microprifers on the roots, no thermoregulation skill. And a long time to multiply once the plant entered into the culture is dangerous, because the buds are not excluded, which can change the varietal qualities of the plants obtained as a result. So you need to regularly grow and plant them in open ground. For this five years ago, I bought the land in the Kaluga region. Then the peasant Pai in 6 hectares of farmland was sold for 40,000 – 50,000.

– dollars or euros?

– rubles, Nastya, rubles! – I am surprised by Andrei Borisovich, shaking hands for consupportion. – I agitated everyone to buy land near me, just no one listened. But in a gift almost, and ecology: all Chernobyl sediments passed by, I checked on special cards.

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