Gaza Strip (Gaza Strip)
Gaza Strip — The territory on the coast of the Mediterranean, which formally belongs to the partially recognized Arab State of Palestine, like the territory of the West Bank of the Jordan River. In the east and north, the gas sector borders with Israel, and in the south-west — with Egypt. The length of the sector reaches 40 km, width — from 6 to 12 km. The area of the land — About 360 km². The capital is the city of Gaza, the largest cities — Khan-Yunis and Rafah.
The total population of the gas sector — more than 1.8 million. human. At the same time, the density of the population varies from 4890 to 5045 people./ KM². Two thirds of the sector — Refugees from Israel and their descendants.
Birth in the Gaza Strip — one of the highest in the world, because of what more than half of the population — Children under the age of 15. The sector’s economy is based on small production, agriculture and fishing, but enterprises do not bring revenue owners, and the development of fisheries is hampered by the Israeli Coast Guard. In the Gaza Strip, a very high level of unemployment, and 38% of the population lives below the poverty line.
It is known that in the XV century BC. NS. There was already a city on site of modern gase. In the XII century BC. NS. He was captured by the Philistines and, together with Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekronom, and Gefom became part of the five-grade.
In 332 BC. NS. Gaza, which was then part of the Jewish kingdom, was captured by Alexander Macedonian. The successors of the outstanding ruler changed the Roman emperors and then — Byzantine.
In the 330s n. NS. On the territory of the modern gas sector, the principality of Maumskoye, which was inhabited exclusively Christians. It contributed to the establishment of a bishop post in Gaza — The most famous Porphyry Gas.
In 1150, Gaza was captured by the Templars headed by Boulder III and began to build the castle Gold, who was not preserved to this day. Then gas owned Aiybid, Egyptian Mamli and Ottomans.
In 1517, Gaza was conquered by the troops of the Ottoman Sultan Selima I. Over the next 400 years, it remained part of a huge Ottoman Empire, which covered a significant part of Southeastern Europe, all small Asia and the Middle East, Egypt and North Africa.
During World War I, the British army invaded Palestine and expelled the Turks. Palestinian autonomy, including gas, passed under the Office of Great Britain as a submanent territory. It was during the period of the British mandate that the first conflicts between the Jewish and Arab population of Palestine began, which increasingly began to move into armed clashes. In 1929, the Jews living in Gaza were forced to leave the city as a result of the pogroms committed by Arabs.
During World War II, Palestinian Jews supported British in hostilities on the third front (Africa and the Middle East) against the Germans and their allies, while the armed formations of Arabs, despite the loyalty from the British, fought on the side of the Nazi blocks.
According to the UN plan under the Palestine section of November 29, 1947, two unnamed states should have been created on the territory of Palestine: Jewish and Arabic. It was assumed that the Gaza Sector will be included in the latter. However, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transordania, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Yemen did not agree with the UN Decision on the section of Palestine, and already on November 30, 1947, the Arab-Israeli war began, continuing until 1949. During this war, the Gaza sector was occupied by Egypt and remained in its composition until the six-day war of 1967.
On June 7, 1967, the sector passed under the control of Israel. However, in 1987, the uprising of Palestinian Arabs against the Israeli authorities began — First intifada. Arabs intended to return the territory occupied by the state of Israel during the six-day war. In 1994, Palestinian autonomy was created, which is not an independent state: Israel remained control of the borders, airspace and territorial waters. The economic situation in the Gaza Strip, which won the autonomy, deteriorated significantly.
In 2001, the second intifada began. Since then, the daily shelling of the southern cities of Israel was conducted from the Gaza sector. As a result of the defensive actions of the Israel Defense Army in the Gaza sector, several thousand people died, two-thirds of the total number of victims — civilians.
On August 15, 2005, within the framework of a single-sided disposal plan, the Israeli government began a forced evacuation of Israel’s citizens living in the territory of the Gaza sector. On September 12, the last soldier Tsakhal was bred, which completed the 38-year-old Israeli presence in the Gaza Strip.
In 2007, the Palestinian Islamist movement of Hamas, recognized as terrorist in many countries of the world, made a coup, as a result of which he gained control over the gas sector. Thus, the Palestinian National Administration split into two hostile to each other. Israel proceeded to a partial economic blockade of the gas sector, periodically shutting down the supply of electricity, stopping the supply of energy carriers and T. D. Six months later, hunger began in the sector, provoking the refugee flow to the Israeli and Egyptian borders. Many Gazanians managed to run to Egypt.
Israel still monitors the territorial waters of the gases and its airspace, explaining it by the ongoing shelling of its cities and villages, as well as attempts to carry into the territory of the weapon sector, ammunition, explosive materials and components for the manufacture of missile. In 2011, the UN Commission recognized that the sea blockade of the gas sector is a legitimate means to protect the security of Israel and is carried out on the basis of international law.
March 30, 2018 there was another concealment of the conflict. The European Union expressed “Serious concern about disproportionate use of force” and called on both sides to maximum restraint to prevent further escalation. He also called on Palestinian organizations to allow administration to “fully restore your power in Gaza, which is critical to improving the situation and the situation of people in the sector”.
For the gas sector, the Mediterranean climate is characteristic — As for the beach resorts of Israel, located in close proximity. Summer is always roast, without precipitation. Exit to the Mediterranean Sea and the long coastline suggest the presence of the beach season: Gazan residents open it in May, but the water is still cold at that time — About +23°WITH.
From June to September Air temperature during the day can reach +35°WITH. From the end of March to the end of October, there are practically no clouds in the sky, and in the evenings can be observed as the sun is hidden behind the horizon line.
In August, the coast is attacking jellyfish, and tourists, by chance, at this time on the gas sector beach, risk getting a burn.
In November, the daily air temperature drops to +20…+23°WITH. At the end of November in the Gaza Strip, as in the Mediterranean coast of Israel, the rainy season begins, which continues until mid-February. At this time, the air temperature drops to 13 in the day — 17°WITH. Cold blowing, penetrating the wind, from which even warm outerwear does not save. Warves in the Gaza Strip Only in the second half of February.
In the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities of the Gaza Sector, rare foreign tourists provide official guides, accompanied by which one can inspect all attractions of the territory, without worrying about security.
Mosque gases — The most ancient architectural construction in the territory. In distant times, there was a pagan temple dedicated to the abundance of Dagon’s abundance, but in the V century. NS. The temple was destroyed, and in its place a large Byzantine Church appeared.
However, Muslims who won Palestine in the VII century, significantly rebuilt this church, converting it to a mosque. In times of crusades, the gases mosque again became the Christian Cathedral. In 1344, Mamli, who captured the power over Palestine, finally destroyed the church and again built a mosque.
Modern view of the mosque found in the XIV century. Partially preserved columns and arches of the Crusaders. Despite damage during hostilities, there was no longer serious destruction in the history of the mosque.
Before entering the mosque itself, you need to remove shoes, but it is better not to leave it on the street, but put in a backpack or package and take with you.
Fort Casre Al-Basha
In the XIII century, Mamluk Sultan Beybears erected a large one-storey mansion for his wife from Gaza and her children. In the XVII century, Ottomans were allowed another floor and turned an old mansion into a strategic object. Inside the fort housed barracks, mosque, barn and weapon warehouse. Later here was the residence of Napoleon Bonaparte during his Middle Eastern campaign.
During the period of the British mandate in Palestine, Fort Casre Al-Basha served as a police station, and after — School for girls. At the moment, the former defensive structure was transformed into a museum.
In the cut from the world, the Gaza sector found a place for contemporary art. The famous British graffiti artist Bankxi penetrated into the sector illegally — Under the underground tunnels, and then painted the paintings on the destroyed buildings, reflecting the whole essence of the destruction in the Gaza Strip and the consequences for local residents. On one of the walls in Gaza Banksy wrote: "If we wash your hands in the conflict between the powerful and self-touch, we accept the side of the power — We do not remain neutral".
Get the usual tourist in the Gaza Strip is extremely difficult. There are no long-distance buses, both to other Palestinian cities, and even there are no organized excursions: no travel agency in the world has access to the Gaza Strip. Those travel agents who sell excursions to the sector, simply bring naive tourists to the concrete wall and tell about what happens for her.
There are underground tunnels that allow you to get into the sector, bypassing all checkpoints. If desired, you can go to people who will help pass through the tunnel for a round sum, but it is unsafe: First, there is a risk to get caught on the illegal crossing of the border and please in a Palestinian or Israeli prison, after which the deportation is subjected; secondly, tunnels may be flooded — Egypt’s authorities repeatedly intended to cut off the underground path to the gas sector.
Legal to the Gaza Strip can be acted both from Israel through the PPC Eretz and from Egypt through the Rafach PPC. But in order to get on one of the most closed territories in the world, you must first get the Israeli or Egyptian permission to leave and then — Hamas permission to enter. These permissions are not allowed to tourists: you need to be a journalist, diplomat or a member of a humanitarian mission.
Those who want to get into the gas sector at all costs usually choose the first option and are preparing in advance: publish their articles in the media about the life of people in the most disadvantaged, dangerous places in the world, then send a portfolio to large editions and agree with one of them about receiving Accreditation. Israeli authorities always check the journalist publications, Egyptian — very rarely.
To get permission to visit the Gas Sector from the Israeli Security Service, you need to make a request for a minimum for 2 — 3 days before the trip. All questions about the receipt of permission from Hamas to enter the sector is better to ask on the official website of the movement. In addition to the necessary permits, the tourist must have “the host” In the Gaza Strip, which will notify the local analogue of the Ministry of Internal Affairs on the arrival of a foreigner.
Gaza sector is separated from Israel by a concrete wall: after receiving the departure permission from Israel — the same as at the airport — Two more checkpoints in the sector. The first point belongs to the Palestinian National Administration, which coordinates the crossing of the border with Israel, and the second — Hamas, who does not contact Israel directly.
Gaza Strip is often called the biggest prison in the world. People who live here are practically no opportunity to travel or even travel abroad for treatment — To do this, they need to undergo complex bureaucratic procedures. The right to work in Israel can only be obtained by Gazanians who have reached the age of 35, who are married and having at least two children.
Despite the fact that the residents of the sector, mostly Arabs — Their mentality is very different even from Palestinian: Total insulation affects. Peaceful inhabitants are much friendly than Palestinians, in relation to rare tourists. Aggressive marketing and intrusive service — phenomena that seem inalienable constituent Middle Eastern flavor — In the markets, there are no gas sector in stores and cafes.
Locals are sincerely glad to tourists and try to make a good impression. In many shops, a foreign buyer will be offered to pay for the goods as much as he will find it necessary, and can even give anything. At the same time in the sector of enough beggars, which, seeing foreigners, will persistently ask for alms.
It is worth noting that prices here are very low — Rich dinner with a drink in a decent cafe will cost 3 — $ 4. In the cheaper cafe you can dine and for 1 — $ 2.
Thanks to the media, many have the impression that in the Gaza sector there is a continuing war, because of which the whole territory lies in the ruins, and there is no infrastructure here and in risen. Partly this is true: the buildings in the poor quarters are partially or completely destroyed by combat actions, but people still live in surviving apartments, and children play on the ruins and bumps of garbage.
Water pipe in small towns of sector — Luxury who can afford only units. Therefore, by cities round the clock ride vans with filtered water. Despite the fact that this water does not correspond to sanitary standards, people buy it for money and pour through the hose into large black barrels installed on the roofs of houses.
In the houses of the poorest residents of the electricity gas sector there is no. In more or less prosperous areas, electricity is supplied for 4 hours a day, and in elite sector — for 8 hours. Only very rich ghazants can afford solar batteries or fuel generator. In major cities of the sector — Gaza and Khan-Yunis — live much more comfortable than in small settlements.
In both cities there are many hospitals, as well as parks, gyms, football clubs and shopping centers, and in Gaza there is even a major al-Azhar University. In general, the city is rather dirty, but Gazanians are trying to solve this problem: Municipal donkeys with carts are used to collect garbage.
Despite the fact that the tourist infrastructure in the sector is missing, there are several hotels for foreigners in Gaza and Khan-Yunis. Prices for accommodation is unreasonably high (from $ 100 per night), while the furniture in the rooms is old, and the hotels themselves do not differ in purity.
Many extremals going to visit the sector stop at locals registered on Couchsurfing — Popular resource from backpackers. This is an excellent opportunity to learn about life on one of the most closed territories in the world.
In addition, the hosts (so in Kauratsurfers is called the receiving party) can help with the design of all permits and the passage of the CAT.
Those who do not apply to extremal adventurers, sensation hunters or “Collectomers” the most dangerous places on earth, in the Gaza Strip it is better not to ride in general — In the same Palestine there are much more interesting places, completely safe for visiting.
Periodically, peaceful agreements are between Israel and the gas sector, but then the conflict is exacerbated again. However, Gazanians never warn in advance about the upcoming shelters of Israel — lovers of acute sensations remains to be hoped only on “Good luck” coincidence.
First you need to get to the Israeli settlement of Ereza, where the PPC is located. Earlier there was the only bus number 2, belonging to the company Dan, but now it does not have it in the list of routes on the website of the bus company or in transport applications. Now you need to go by bus number 20 to the final stop “מחסום ארז / כביש” (Makhsse Erez / Kvish) and go to the gearbox half an hour on foot.
Therefore, it is easier to get to the line on a rented car and before passing the border to park it on the Israeli side. Those who have come together to spend several days in the Gaza Strip, it will be more profitable to get taxi.