Genius places. Kaliningrad region
Kaliningrad region became part of Russia after the Second World War and is the only Russian half-eksplava, that is, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, it is connected only to the Baltic Sea, and does not have a common land border. Get here the easiest only by the plane – then you will not need a Schengen visa nor passport. If there is a visa, you can drive by train or car – then not only Russian, then Polish and Lithuanian landscapes will be fed outside the window. Another perfect way to get to Kaliningrad – Sea, on the ferry.
To quickly navigate in the city, look for green racks – information center for tourists. But in general. Acquaintance with Kaliningrad is better to start not with generally accepted attractions and as such a center, but from the outskirts. For example, from the ancient district of Amalienau. This area is a live illustration of the old Koenigsberg – with Vitivaty streets and a specific German numbering: it is not at home here, and the entrances – apartments are reset in each. And in the Altes HAUS Museum you can feel if not a resident, then at least the guest of Eastern Prussia. There are no shop windows, no fences, you can buy something that I liked, and bring something to the collection.
Another interesting museum is located in the royal gate. The gates themselves are a spectacular structure, a castle resembling a castle, a Kaliningrad business card and the main goal in the city. Those that cost now were erected in the XIX century. The first at this place appeared for two centuries before. And the royal name – received thanks to the Prussian kings, which followed them from the castle on the military reviews and parades. Inside visitors meets keeper keys from the city – Prussian cat. They say if he is stroked, then all the desires will be performed. Just the gates are also called the material and mystical entrance to the Royal Mountain – this is exactly what the same name of the city (Königsberg) translates. And when you find yourself inside them on a virtual historical excursion, you understand that this is true – you seem to be transferred for many many centuries ago.
In 1944, the entire center of the city was destroyed. The main strike was inflicted by English aviation, which destroyed everything in its path: and residential buildings, and historical monuments. Did not spare and the royal castle. Ruins of the castle blew up in Soviet times. Moreover, laughter and sin, dried three years – from April 67th to May 70. Knights were built on the conscience, their lives depended on the strength of the walls. And above the castle gates, even the inscription was: "The hardness of the fortress and there is our God". Just did not help the inscription, alas. And later at the site of the castle, the House of Soviets was erected – the infamous monument of post-war history.
Koenigsberg from the moment of its foundation has always been ready to repulse enemies. In military science, he was considered a "double tet de pontom", which means "coastal fortress on both sides of the river". Fittic objects that have survived to this day belong to the XIX century and are two defense lines. The first – within a radius of 1 km from the location of the castle: these are earthen shafts, gates, rasters, bastions and. The second line within a radius of 6-8 km is numerous forts. However, in the seven centuries, the fortress facilities did not need the city, they scared the enemies with their existence and harsh view.
The exception was the Second World War. It turned out to be a real check for local fortifications. And for Soviet troops. After all, despite its respectable age, in 1945, these forts still remained a very strong nutrition. For understanding: Koenigsberg is the only city that is not the capital of the state for taking the Soviet leadership in the end established the medal. Yes, the city fell, and the fortress structures were subjected to very serious destruction. But some survivors.
For example, the 11th fort – Dunhoff, named so in honor of the representatives of the famous kind of donhof. Until recently, it was closed for visits, because he was located in the department of the Ministry of Defense. But now anyone has the opportunity to assess his power. Fort remained in the form in which it was built 150 years ago. And the premises that were intended here for the accommodation of the garrison, and the arches, and the whims were preserved from the most time when a garrison was located here. Places where there were once fireplaces, storm systems for water flow, remained old stairs and even elevator lifts.
Chenigsberg forts and their secrets. In the 3rd post-war years, part of the collection of the Prussian Museum was found, on Forte 2a – in the Gelzea from the projectile – the ancient icons, here, for one of the versions, in August 44th brought fragments of the amber room – they wanted to save it from bombing. But it was taken out of here or not – no one knows now.
In fact, fortress facilities in Kaliningrad many, and most of them are available for visiting. There is even an excursion special for fortifications of the city, which can be separately ordered.
Only the fortress gate here preserved eight! There are also Brandenburg, Friedland, Zakhaimsk, Rosgar’an.
Initially, the name Koenigsberg wore only the castle. At the end of the XIII century, the settlements of Altstadt, Lebenicht and Kneyprhof, who soon received the status of cities. In 1724, the Prussian King of Friedrich Wilhelm I accepted the official decision to combine these three cities in one – Koenigsberg, who became the capital of East Prussia. In the same 1724, the great philosopher was born here, Immanuel Kant.
Funny, here even comics are printed about it, from which you can find out that every day at the same time, according to your schedule, Kant went to the Promenade. Simple Königsberg city dwellers of the XVIII century, even wrapped around the hours to check, because the route of the philosopher was always the same. On the way, he necessarily sat down to rest on the bench and, it should be noted, always forgot something. Hat, cane still lying. Stone, truth.
The Spirit of the Grand Cant in Kaliningrad is hurt everywhere: it is literally materialized in monuments, portica, museums and memorial places. Moreover, in honor of the philosopher, there is a whole island, a former Kneyprhof, one of the three cities that have come to Königsberg once. He is decorated with the Gothic Cathedral – the symbol and pride of the city, which almost suffered the same fate as the Royal Castle. Cathedral saved the grave of Kant at his walls. Born in one day with a philosopher Lenin very much appreciated his works, so the Soviet authorities did not dare to touch the ruins of the victim from bombing buildings.
Zelenogradsk, Curonian Spit
An hour’s drive from Kaliningrad is a resort bar of the Baltic Sea coast of 50 km. At all its length, settlements and cities are located in which thousands of people from all over Russia are resting annually. And this resort bar begins in the east of the Kaliningrad region from the old town of Zelenogradsk, which was founded in the XIII century by the Knights of the Teutonic Order and until 1946 was called Cranc. The crane was the first in Eastern Prussia by the Sea Resort, known since 1816. And almost immediately he got the royal status.
Once upon a time there was a tribe of the Kury – the ancestors of Prussians and Lithuanians, hence the name – the Curonian Spit. This Sablevoid Strip of the Earth separates the Freshwater Curza Bay from the Baltic Sea and stretches almost 100 km from Zelenogradsk to Lithuanian Klaipeda. Buses run. For cars entry paid. To find out about the place More, you can download the mobile app in the Curonian Cosse. GPS audio will automatically determine where you are, and everything is detailed about this place to tell.
Spit is unique to all: and its location, and relief, and natural ranges. It is no coincidence that it is called a bird bridge. In the days of migrations over the oblique daily fly to a million pernate, the real bird market is obtained. Moreover, there is one of the first in the world and the oldest ornithological station in Europe.
Moving here only on special flooring and admire only from viewing sites. Go down, go out to open dunes is forbidden, because every step on the edge of the Avandy is caused by the movement of one and a half tons of sand.
Admire the spit. In places the height of the Dune reaches 60 with more than a meter above sea level, and these hills are made of smallest white sand, and even in combination with pines, look like a decoration to a fantastic film. It is worth passing away – and we get into the mysterious pine forest, which takes about a kilometer from the entire route of the braid, but forces to stay here for a long time.
Dancing – Here is how this forest is called. The trees were planted here to strengthen the Curonian Spit in 1961, and at first, no one paid attention to how young pines are bizarre, only years later an anomaly became the obvious. As if something inexplicable tormented trunks, as if they were swinging from pain. Scientists and psychics are still trying to explore these places, but the phenomenon of dancing pines so far so remains a mystery.