Genius Places: Sverdlovsk region
Ural. The stone belt of our country and the natural border between Europe and Asia. There are several Russian regions at once in its territory, each of which can be called a "dark horse". Today, the authors of the program of "Genius Places" will prove that the Urals is a great travel option at any time of the year.
Yekaterinburg: dam, cast iron, gems and Vysotsky
Location from the capital of the Sverdlovsk region special. Yekaterinburg is located where the Urals have a small height, and this allowed at the end of the XVIII century through the city to pave the road from Central Russia to Siberia and Asia. At first it was a big Siberian tract, then – the Trans-Siberian Highway. To this day, the roads come out here with all our vast countries, so Ekaterinburg is rightfully proud of the capital of the Urals!
The founding date of Yekaterinburg – November 18, 1723. On this day, it was first converted by the dam of the dam of the largest railway plant, built on the banks of the Iset River by decree of the emperor Peter I. Yekaterinburg and was at first the city-plant. Dam shared him into two parts. On the one hand, there was a new-forming pond, and on the other – the factory itself. The city surrounded the fortress wall, along which residential buildings were erected.
Excursion to start with the historic center. Founders of the city – the famous State Affilitary of Vasily Tatishchev and the best metallurgist of Russia Villem de Gennin, thanks to which, by the way, the city received his name in honor of Spouse Peter I – Empress Catherine, and the status of the only "mountain" city in our country. Well, next – then the most structure from which everything started. Dam. Citizens affectionately name is her dam.
Where the factory was previously located, the historical square is now broken. Along it, right in the open sky, samples of the oscillate stones are put up, which the Ural rich – we are on the homeland of the hostess of the copper mountain.
Here, in the historical square, there is a museum of fine arts, and inside – exhibit, which is simply obliged to see every guest of Yekaterinburg: the famous Castle cast iron pavilion. It was created specifically for the World Industrial Exhibition, held in Paris in 1900, and won the highest awards there. It consists of more than one and a half thousand parts, weighs about 4 tons, more than 6 m in height. To date, this is the only architectural building from the cast iron located in the museum collection.
Well, finally, the business card of the Urals in general and the Sverdlovsk region in particular – gems. They are exhibited in four museums of the city! In the exhibitions, firstly, the diverse stones – themselves are beautiful so that the eye do not all. And secondly, the works created from the gems of the Ural Kamnezes. And these are real works of art.
From museums in the city, you certainly need to look back to local lore, because the most important Ural exclusive is kept there – found at the end of the XIX century 70 km from Yekaterinburg Shigirsky Idol. This is an oldest wooden sculpture in the world, which was created 9500 years ago. That is, the idol is almost 5,000 years older than Egyptian pyramids. You ask: how could he be preserved? In fact, everything is simple: the sculpture was discovered in peat sediments, she was there a lot of centuries there without access of oxygen. It’s a waste tree from decomposition.
And one more place in Yekaterinburg can no longer miss. In fact, it is also a museum. Museum, keeping the memory of the tragic events of 1918, – Temple on the blood. It was erected in our time on the site of the Ipatiev house, which went down in history as a place where the life of the last Russian emperor and his family broke. Before entering the temple, we see perpetuated Romanov. The royal family is captured just at the moment of descent to the basement of the Ipatiev House for the shooting.
House Nikolai Ipatiev demolished in 1977. And when in his place decided to build a temple, he was designed in such a way as to recreate the place of execution of the royal family. Red square on the floor – approximately the same size as a focusing room. Evil Irony of Fate: The royal dynasty of Romanov left the Ipatiev Monastery in Kostroma in 1613, and completed his existence after 305 years in the Ipatiev House.
Evening Ekaterinburg. View of the Iset River and urban areas with one of the urban heights, really stunning.
Nevyansk: Nevyansk Inclined Tower
Another city of the Sverdlovsk region – Nevyansk. He is north of Yekaterinburg. As well as the capital of the region, this city has commanded to establish Peter the Great. The first melting of the metal was produced here in 1701, he is considered the year of the founding of Nevyansk. Thus, he became the first city-factory in Russia. Moreover, it was here that the famous Gornozavodsky Empire of Demidov Dynasty.
The local museum of military equipment is one of the largest in our country. In his collection of more than 250 units of military equipment. Moreover, the exposition is directly related to the history of the Urals, since very many tanks and cannons were made precisely at local plants: in Sverdlovsk, Perm and Chelyabinsk. Much here and unique exhibits – from the five-bash tank T-35 to a walking bronzector and flying locomotive. Why flying? And see.
Nevyansk called "Grandfather of the Ural Plants". At the time of his youth, he was famous for the world’s largest domain oven and the best metal in the country, which even for the first time in the history of Russia began to export abroad. Up to this point, on the contrary, the metal to we were taken from other countries. Over the years, the glory of "grandfathers" dirty: in our time I will not surprise anyone. And to paint the Neviansk to the most common quiet provincial town if it were not for one but – the Nevyansk oblique tower.
The accurate year of the tower buildings no one knows. It is only known that it erected her by order of Nikita and Akinfia Demidov in the first half of the XVIII century. And she glanced, according to legends, because of the Demidov sins. Although there is another version that it was built on the sample of the Pisa Tower and the slope was conceived initially. But, most likely, the builders were simply mistaken in the design and did not take into account the mobility of the soil, because of what, in fact, the Nevyanskaya Tower and tank. The construction is a multi-storey, and on each floor for tourists there is something interesting.
Here on the first one can see how the legendary local basements looked. On the second – the office of Akinfia Demidov. With surprise. On the third – the assignment. Even above – a very interesting tower room – hearing. See! And listen.
And if climbed to the very top of the tower, you can see the mechanism of unique chimes with musical battle. Hours of these English, very expensive, Demidov paid 5000 rubles for them., While the whole tower was estimated at 4207 rubles. 60 kop. Imagine? Watch more expensive towers. They are given in motion manually. Every morning the watchmaker Mikhail Naumovich comes here and wakes up the gigantic watches of the owner of the Nevyansky factories.
Polevskoy: Bazhov places
Nevyansk, Local Plant and Demidov Dynasty are immortalized in the tales of Pavel Petrovich Bazhov. They found a place for many Ural cities. But, perhaps, most often at the famous writer is mentioned by the city of Polevskaya and its surroundings, from where the Bazhov himself came from and where for the nine generations His ancestors lived.
The origin of Polevskaya has typical Ural. At first, a copper smelter plant was built here, which gave the beginning of the village of Polevsky, then I found the iron ore – and the iron campaign plant appeared, and the village of Seversky around him. Subsequently, they united in the city, which to this day lives metallurgy.
Now the production here is modern. But on the territory of one of them, the workshop of the old factory is preserved, from the past. The only Industrial complex of the XIX century in Europe, which clearly demonstrates how steel tempered 150 years ago! There is a blower here, which served the air into the oven, the domain oven itself was preserved – 1898.
Not far from the domain, on the dam of the factory pond rises amazing beauty chapel. The uniqueness of her is that it is built from iron and iron it was manually. This is an exact copy of the chapel, which stood at the end of the XIX century on the territory of the village. And here it was already erected by modern Ural craftsmen.
And now we will go on a visit to Master-Kamnezu, a person is surprisingly talented. Works of Vadim Pavlovich Kukushkina decorate the expositions of Russian and foreign museums. From gems, he even created a map of the world, spending a year and a half work and more than a thousand stones.
Located nearby Gumashevsky Rudnik, if you believe Archaeologists, – the oldest copper mine in the Urals: it was also developed the ancestors of modern mansi to our era. And the global fame of the hummie acquired because of the malachite found here in unprecedented quantities. Here once found a block of weight in 170 pounds, which Catherine II was presented.
Immediately there is a twin mountain, which is so called because, according to legend, in 1774 he held the Duma Great Emelyan Pugachev, reflecting how to act against the royal troops. And this is an archaeological monument, which preserved traces of people’s stay 3000-year old.
Park "Oleni streams": Mountains and caves
Ural Mountains – really the most real pantry minerals. Of the 55 species, which in different years were developed in our country, 48 presented here. Amazing underground riches are explained by the complex geological history of the Urals and his long life. Age of this mountain system – 250 million years old, it is one of the oldest on our planet. Sverdlovsk region is located on the territory of the Middle Urals and partly Northern. For lovers of mountains in the region, many routes have been developed.