Gentlemen and animals

We do not know who was the leader of the Neolithic Revolution. We cannot say who led the mass from the primitive-communal system in the slave formation. But we can call those who have identified our lives for many centuries ahead – animals that were with a person throughout history.

I have not knew any family nor God, but the Homo Sapiens driven by the Lord’s fishery quickly began to climb up the food chain. Starting like as a titular adviser in the animal table of ranks, a primitive person was heard in the State Secretary and left over only Honey forces. Bear, Wolverine and Leo submissively bowed heads before the new owner and taiga, and tundra, and steppes. The king of nature someone favorably brought to himself, someone rejected by a lazy boric hand. The horse and the dog was recruited during prehistoric recoatchin, the lizard and spider were not left with cases. The worldwide self-container was inextricably related to his subjects – was with them and in joy, and in sorrow. In the most serious year, the dog looked at him, sadly watched the cow. Himself, having sacrificed in a sacrifice, the domestic cattle thoughtfully trampled the fields and was happy to serve his Mr. But only as there is no way without good, so there is no good without humid – came across among animals and those that betrayed, and those that manipulated. Rats with stuck fleas sowed plague, Restless Mastodonts took a person to America. Stubborn, Evil, Communicative Mug of Tsetz Centuries did not allow the noble savages of Africa to bring livestock in the southern part of the continent.

The thought of the relationship of the indigenous American population with the people of Northern Eurasia was held by researchers back in the XVI century – about contacts with Asia wrote Jesuit Jose de Azost. By 1930, confirmation of this theory came from geology – it turned out that under the very end of the Pleistocene (from 50,000 to 10,000 years ago) the sea level due to glaciers dropped by 60 m. With this level of the sea, the land strip of the earth should have been formed in the place of the current Bering Strait. The hypothetical land scientists called Beringia and suggested that it was on her a primitive person about 15,000 years ago he got into a new light.

What made the ancient Siberians do such a distant journey and open America? The answer seems to be able to give an archaeological culture of Klovis, found in 1936 first in Mexico, and then in the US. People who inhabited America 15,000 years ago engaged in hunting and collecting. Mammoths, Mastodonts, Bizonov – Large animals were the basis of primitive diet. It is probably that they pulled a person to master a new part of the world – a glacier and a sharp cooling forced the animals to leave the cold Eurasia and look for happiness in America. Following them the man went.

If among the lead sea desert and dark cliffs you see Sonm Kayakok – Know, Eskimo went to China. Confident hand and easy harpoon, in the way for a few days – and the water from the shore will be red from the blood of a young beast. Mountains of meat and fat, leather, mustache, bone – this is hardly enough for the Eskimo village for a year. Tasha is divided, meat will put in the storage pit.

So it was in the XIX and in the XX century. Eskimo, how much he knew his European, always lived on the verge: "Fought alone", as Eskimos called not survived the hungry winter, and 10% of mentally ill. Home Food is not whale and no walrus and seal. Home Care – Hunger. But it was not always so.

In the autumn of 1976, the Soviet ethnographer of members sailed on the Eskimo kayak by the island of YTtyGran. Having taken ashore, the scientist expect to examine the traces of the previous settlements and go on. He was already going to moisten when the wind dispersed the fog and opened the look of dozens of blown in pebbles in strict order of whale, skulls and ribs. These were structures built on a specific plan – probably the sanctuary.

With the onset of the next field season, a group of researchers went to the island. The inspections have shown: several hundred people worked on the construction of several decades. Bones belonged to adult whales. Kill two such whales per year – a big luck, and on the island there were up to 50 skulls. According to the results of the expedition, it became clear: whale alleys, as scientists called bone structures, belong to culture much more developed than modern Eskimos. To build, I needed political power and will and simultaneous application efforts of hundreds of people. All this meant that there was a similarity of the state and the surplus product on the islands (the current Eskimos cost without him at all!). All this indicates the emergence of a full civilization. What happened to this high culture?

The period from IX to the XIV century – the time of one of many global warming. Improving climate on the islands led to an increase in the whale population. For Eskimos, this meant a fusion life, a relatively low mortality and the possibility of development. But forever it could not continue – in the XIV century, the water was frowning again, and the Arctic beasts rose again on the familiar face of survival.

Wild horse at first – the subject of the hunt of primitive man. The noble savage captured the scenes of hunting on the walls of their wretched cave. Domain the horse managed only 5000 years ago. To I thousand. to N. NS. A person is already finally coming off with a horse: and chariots, and a bridle in the go, jumps and old and young. So close acquaintance with the horse allows the rider to master all new spaces. Among other things – the steppe corridor of Eurasia.

Eurasian steppe – a unique phenomenon. Savanns and Prairies are located in small splashes among forests and deserts of Africa and America. 7000 km of the Eurasian Steppe stretches from the donutany lowland in the West to the REDC desert plateau in the East. Around the forest and mountain – from Sayan to the Balkans. Steppe – the natural habitat of the horse, and the one – the main means of communication in the midst of the biggest sushi on earth.

Indoirans with their chariots began to master huge spaces among bitter herbs and endless species in the second thousand. to N. NS. For 1000 years, the peoples known under the general name "Scythians" managed to be born in new conditions. Cattlers create states, build kursany mounds, pour bronze. On a huge territory, a single style is formed – "animal". Barsa on bleaks and handles are tormented by deer, deer face claws and wings. The scenes of torments and fantastic animals are repeated in Altai, and in the Urals, and in the Crimea. Faced with saddled peoples, connants adopt that they see: in the Crimea Scythian art becomes Greek exactly, and in Altai, the graves put Persian carpets.

The end of the Scythian era – the beginning of the i thousand. N. NS. Sarmatians and Huns come to shifts. There is no more animal style, but there is another: Huns under the leadership of their leaders, the brightest of which – Attila, go further to the West. Nomads pushed others to come forward – the great resettlement of peoples. Gunnov managed to stop only in the catalaunoic fields in France – this is the most distant campaign, ever perfect by steppe riders. This is not surprising – every rider led with him two, and then three horses. To feed such an army could only steppe, which in the Danube lowland area comes down. The resettlement of peoples will end here in the 10th century by the acquisition of the birthplace by the Hungarians who came on the same horses on the same steppe from the Urals.

The two last major contacts of Stepnikov with Europe over time intersected – Turks finished the remnants of the Roman Empire in the East, the Mongols were reached by Hungary and brought with them, among other things, a bubonic plague.

Steppe corridor and horse up to great geographical discoveries remained the main funds of the Eurasian Communication. In contact with Connants, steppes arose and collapsed states, styles were formed and religions were created.

In the XII century, Stepnyaki once again went to conquer Eurasia. From Korea to Hungary passed with their kibits, herds, endless felt diagonal people. Rus and India tied the horse residential, Himalayas pulled into the Carpathians. From the end to the end of a huge mainland, goods, genes, vocabulary, cattle and diseases were worn, among which – a bubonic plague. By this time, Europe about the plague forgot – the ailment was not disturbed by Europeans from the IX century. A reminder of Asian hands in the middle of the century XIV determined the development of European history.

Gentlemen and animals

By 1346, a plague rat, the main sick peddler, got to the Azov coast. The Genoese Shopping Ship accepted it on board, and already in 1347, 12 marine gallers enter the port of Messina. Plague in the city: Mothers throw children, husbands – wives, people from the city run to neighboring riding. Traders are expelled. Native Genoa drives his own vessels by burning arrows. Plate Fleet Plys in Marseille to, infecting the city, again to be in the sea. Without a single living sailor, the fatal galleans wandered over the Mediterranean Sea – Europe was infected, the historical mission was completed, the courts only remained that.

The disease hit the city from Norway to Sicily – fleas were biting sick rats and led to people. Temperature up to 42 ° on the first day, further – solid red jacks-bubones, they barely entered the scalpel, in groin and armpits. Three days a man died. Death could be both an ambulance – an air-drip infection, the pulmonary form, and healthy men and women got to bed in the middle of the streets. Doctors died during operations. Behind the sad turmoil inhabitants of the cities did not see the reasons for Mora – the rats were removed from the same hands, but who could take care. The townspeople sinned it on the stars, then on the Jews and levers, then the wrath of anger. Buggy corpses and clothing, worn bird masks with vinegar in the beak.

The first century of the plague on average every ten years visited European cities. Pass on the street – the circle of the blue corpses, stench. Bell silent, shutters closed. The cart rides, she is dead in white sheets, and look around – among them and lively, the grave is no need to visit one house twice. Healthy townspeople, who are not at home – in church and kabaska. Drunk, frightened people. Patients enter at home to infect children and servant – I want to die with the whole world. Scientists call on the reading public will not be panic, and it is worth it to celebrate Mor: Among the famous cases – "Decameron" Bokcchcho.

The population of France for 130 years of the plague decreased with approximately 21 million to 14 million people, England – from 4.5 million to 3 million, Germany – from 14 million to 10 million. Dead giving arable land alive. The population will again begin to grow noticeably only by the middle of the next century – the numerous children of those who spared black death will be overwhelmed with Europe and begin to master the distant continents, leading their animals and their diseases.

By 1958, China’s Communist Party was with the authority for nine years. Gomintanovtsy led by Chen Kai Shi found themselves on the tiny island of Taiwan, and in mainland China, for the first time in many decades, a steady central government appeared. In economically, the Middle Kingdom has significantly lagging behind the first world and even from the Coclarage countries, relationships with whom suffered rapidly. Chairman of Mao Polon Decommission: China must make a "big jump". The essence of this campaign was reduced to collectivization in the Stalinist sample and the replacement of professionalism by the enthusiasm of workers. Before the people of the party put the task of six and a half times the production of steel and in two and a half times – grains.

Steel production increased under the program "Small metallurgy". 700,000 blast furnaces were installed in the country, where the fuel was simple firewood. An impracticable plan and low qualifications of workers allowed only very low quality cast iron in such conditions. For the fulfillment of the plan on the smelting, all, up to the kitchen utensils.

Experiments were also carried out in agriculture. Idea inspirer – Academician Lysenko. Among the main directions of the campaign – the fight against "four enemies": flies, rats, mosquitoes and sparrows. The last item (sparrow ate sowing) was perceived by workers with special enthusiasm. Sparrow can not spend in the air of a more definite time (about 15 minutes), after it falls to death. Millions of the Chinese climbed onto the roofs and, as if distinguishing Sirin from the cheating pictures, beat in the drums, shouted, clapped. Sparrow clouds fell on the ground. Time Note – Peasants are photographed on the background of the mountain of the Dead Sparrow.

The destruction of birds led to a violation in the environmental system. In addition to sowing, sparrows ate insects. In the coming years, caterpillar and locust led to hunger – about 10 million people died. "Large jump" in general gone about 20 million.

Gentlemen and animals

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