Great water. Don

The film crew of the "Greater Water" program was woven along the Don, having traveled along the river of time and finding out whether the unicorn existed, where the real Amazons lived, which was able to Stalin and could not be able to Alexander Macedonian and Peter I.

On the territory of Russia – 2.8 million rivers. Their total length – more than 12 million km. People settled on their shores to millennia. Reflecting in their transparent waters, civilization dresses developed. Rivers were binding threads between cultures and countries. They breathe history, legends, legends and secrets.

Don. Because of the low flow rate, it does seem to be quiet. This is how this river is so measured by almost 23 million years old. Throughout the course, the caves, underground tunnels and galleries hidden from the eyes of the building and even the city arose in various epochs. They exist today. And there, in the rocks, under water and underground, long ago, it would seem, the past past remains a real living reality. We start a trip by the river.

Tsimlyan Sea, XX Century

Century xx – literally a turning point for don. In 1953, his bed for the first time in 23 million was overflowing a huge dam in order to form a Tsimlyan reservoir, which is sometimes even called the Tsimlyan Sea. It reduced Don’s power by almost a third, and under the thickness of the water turned out to be 164 villages, the city of Kalach-on-Don, the ancient Khazar fortress, the Volgograd railway line – Lyhai and 263,000 having female arable land. People moved to the right bank of Don. And before that, after all, there was also a routine … The Government of the Bolsheviks declared him immediately after the revolution. The cohesive military of freedom-loving people was dangerous for a young state. As a result of repression and references, about 40,000 Cossacks died.

Anyway, great water has become the most powerful source of the fact that the power of the state was determined in the XX century – the source of energy. Tsimlyan hydroelectric station is more than 600 million kWh. This dam is hardly the largest in the country: its height is 32 m.

The Tsimlyan reservoir has a second bottom. There is a fragment of an ancient civilization – the Khazar city of Sarkel. He stood at the crossroads of trade routes and interfered with Russian princes to carry goods on Don. When the caravan went into the territory of the Khazaria, then the tax on the passage of this state was supposed to pay. If the caravan was delayed, then paid for the fact that he stopped. Such a kind of visa. At the same time, the Khazars learned to make wine and generously pierced them. And stood a caravan day, another, week ..

All this forced the prince of Svyatoslav Igorevich in 970 to make a campaign on Byzantium – at that time she supported Khazar Kaganat. The campaign was successful, the prince received from Constantinople consent to the destruction of customs. Sarkel-on-Don became the Russian city of White Taja, but the remnants of an ancient Sarkela and today do not give rest to researchers. There, below, under the thickness of water – Streets and temples, roads and houses. Above that don’s waters hid, the time as if no longer power.

Volga-Don Canal, XX Century

Many dreamed of a meeting of Don with the Volga. And Persian king Darius I 2500 years ago, and Alexander Macedonsky, and Peter Great – more than 30 projects are known. But it was possible only to Stalin with his free workforce in the form of tens of thousands of political prisoners repressed in the 30s of the last century. Volga-Don Canal – one of the most grandiose braces of totalitarian regime. Just imagine, with its construction from the earth’s crust, 150 million cubic meters of soil was seized – this is 2.5 million autofur, the top of the filled land. And on the whole of the construction, only three and a half years left … Thanks to the work of prisoners. The prisoners had a stimulus: the day of work at the construction site was counted in two days of detention. 26,000 people freed early. Many of them even received government awards … Although most of the builders of the Volga-Don Canal went back to the zone. And yet on May 31, 1952, the waters of Volga and Don were finally merged between the first and second gateway.

The level of the Volga does not coincide with the level of don. Therefore, for the movement of ships, the construction of nine gateways, which to this day admire their power.

Voronezh region Voronezh region, 18,000 years ago

On the clock of the Don Machine – Upper Paleolithic. Time in the way – 18,000 years. In the vicinity of this village, the bones of mysterious animals were found in Peter I. The king asked his hills to get for his Kunstkamera "bones of both human and elephants". The emperor believed that these are bones of the combat elephants Alexander Macedon. Truth revealed only in the XIX century.

By the way, our ancestors on mammoths hunted not only for food. According to the employees of the Archaeological Museum-Reserve "Kostenkov" 20,000 years ago, the mammoth bones served as an excellent building material. They were laid in a circle, poured soil, thus obtained a rather durable foundation with a height of about 70-80 cm. On the perimeter they knocked eight pairs of mammoth skulls with hiding holes up. These holes inserted the support stiffs, and those, in turn, were covered with animal skins.

A very picturesque picture of life of that distant era. To build such a house, about 600 large bones were required, which means that our distant ancestors needed to kill at least 40 mammoths!

Stanitsa Vyoshenskaya, XIX century

Approximately from the XII century on the banks of the Don Mixed special free people – Cossacks. For the first time, the mention of them appeared in the certificate of Nagay Prince Yusup Ivan Grozny. It was reported that the people were settled on the Don, who "your servant people take away and beat the death". However, already in 1552, the Cossack army received a certificate from the king "to possession of Don and all his tributaries".

In Stanitsa Vyeshenskaya lived, Mikhail Sholokhov, who glorified the Cossacks for the whole world in his novel "Quiet Don", awarded the Nobel Prize. Now in his house there is a museum in which the director serves the grandson of the writer Alexander Mikhailovich.

The two-storey mansion was built immediately after the war, in 1949. The old town of Sholokhov was bombed – through the Vyoshenskaya our troops went to Stalingrad, here was a cross, and bombed the village merciless. And after the war, the writer received a loan from the state to the construction of a house in the vigors. Here Sholokhov wrote "They fought for their homeland" and "the fate of a person".

Serafimovich, Ust-Medbiditsky Savior Transfiguration Monastery

Right under us – the most ancient caves. According to legend, all these caves, and here 165 m underground moves, Mother-Queena Arseny built it with her own hands, only two faders helped her. 165 m for 14 years. Three women with bare hands. It does not fit in my head … Here I need to create a cave temple like those that built the first Christian exilets. Once, when after a long job and sleepless nights, she sat down on a stone, she was the Virgin. Traces of her stay imprinted on the stone: two palms of female hands and two knees. The nuns believe that the Mother of God came to bless a monk for labor.

Aksai, XVIII century

From the monastery to Axa a good one thousand kilometers, Volgodonsk, Zimlyansk, Kalach-on-Don remained behind our back … And you know what is surprising, – nowhere, in any place of Russia there is no such number of underground structures! Centuries hidden life burly on the banks of Don. Real parallel reality.

In Aksai, on the royal customs offset, where there were no waste of the settlement, – as many as 35 underground structures. Aksay Customs built near the capital of Don Troops Cherkasy to control trade. In this room there were customs warehouses. This is only a small part of the branched network of moves located along the mouth of the river. Perhaps there were moves in antiquity, when there was a Kobyakovo settlement here – the settlement, which appeared in the X century before. NS. In the 70s of the last century, geological exploration found under Aksai the Underground Sea, which further spurred the imagination of local residents … After all, according to the annoyments, people were worshiped here a certain underground monster.

Natural park Donskaya, 5000 years ago

Great water. Don

Opening a global scale. The hill with a diameter of almost 200 m and a height of about 3 m, surrounded by perfectly even moat. Scientists have established: similar sanctors were erected by zoroastrians, enhancing Agni – the Deity of Fire.

According to scientists, this religious construction is 5000 years. In the center of the temple, archaeologists discovered a giant oven laid out by white stone. Zoroastrians folded oak forest with whole trees, fell asleep with chalk and set fire. A pillars of smoke in quiet weather rose very high and was visible from afar. The travelers came to this place to worship fire.

According to scientists, the fire of Zoroastrians burned here at least 500 years. The temperature reached almost 1000 °. It can be seen by how the stones were melted, they were practically turned into a vitreous mass. How in those ancient times managed to maintain such a temperature, scientists do not yet know.

As zoroastrian tribes could be on the banks of the Don, also not yet established. However, the excavations still go, and it is possible that the past of this land will be surprised more than once ..

Azov, 1.5 million years ago

For this fortress over 2,000 years, blood rivers were spilled. Too favorably stood azov at the crossroads of sea and river trading routes. But what is really interesting is the hidden story of Azov. Now we will see the proof that the unicorns exist, at least existed. This is a skeleton of a unicorn. No horns, since in the fossil state they are not preserved – this is not a bone, but tissues that are susceptible to rotting.

The bones of the largest prehistoric rhinoceros of the Quaternary period – Caucasian elasmoteria – together with the oldest archaeological artifacts were found on the Taman Peninsula. Animal that walked along the banks of the Don 1.5 million years ago, reached a height of 3 m. There was a rhino for herbivore, the horn used as a shovel, digging underground parts of the plants, there was a lot to eat to feed 5.5 tons of their weight, it was necessary to have a huge amount of plant mass. According to scientists, it is he who is a prototype of a legendary creature – a unicorn.

Tanais, V century BC. NS.

We are in Tanais, the city at the very mouth of the Don River. Here was the northernmost colony of the ancient Greeks, founded in the III century to.NS. There are assumptions that it was here that real Amazons lived.

After all, how the Amazons were on Don, wrote even Herodotus. In the battle on the Fermodontte River they were captured by Ellina. On the way to Greece, the court fell into the storm. Taking advantage of the moment, Amazon killed the Greeks, and the ships brought the goal here, to the place where Don flows into the Azov Sea. According to the employee of the Azov historical and archaeological and paleontological museum-reserve of Irina Afanasyeva, "Amazon did not cultivate the land, did not engage in crafts … they only knew how to fight. War came to the Don Earth, robberies, robbery and murder came. And men did not know for a long time with whom they fight, because the Amazons were dressed on the male manner, and masks were worn on their faces. ".

According to one of the versions, a new people appeared from the Union of Amazons and other Don tribes – Sarmati. In those found on Don Sarmatian graves, women are buried with traces of injuries and in full service. Construction harness details decorated with gold, luxurious golden popone. Weapons, dishes and decorations – all this tells us the real story of Don Amazons.

So, passing through all the epochs, from Paleolith to this day, we almost got to the Done Delta itself. Here don is raised by thousands of small streams to form the Sea of ​​Azov.

What will tell big water about us, people of the XXI century? What will this story be: glorious or sad? That will save for our descendants this eternal river?

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