Haifa – One of the largest cities of Israel, the third area and numbers after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. The city is located on the slopes of Mount Karmel. Its area is 63.7 kV. kilometers and population – 281 thousand. human. Haifa is the only international seaport of Israel, as well as a large business, educational and medical center.
In the Bronze Age, at the place of Haifa there was a settlement of Tel-Abu Havam, as evidenced by the finds of modern archaeologists. However, small villages on the slopes and the foot of Mount Karmel – Shikmon, Castra and Heifa were first mentioned in written sources only in the III-VI century BC. NS. In those days, the wealthy Jews lived here, whose main activity was fisheries. Sea coast has mollusks, from which masters produced expensive purple paint for clothes. Romans called these villages in one word – Porfirion.
On the way to Jerusalem, Roman legionnaires replenished meals here, generously paying off with local residents. Meanwhile, a major sea port of AccCo developed in several tens of kilometers from Mount Karmel. Wanting to earn, more and more Jews and Arabs moved closer to the Mediterranean Sea. Soon, fishing villages united in one city, which entered the Roman province of Judea.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire Haifa, like other cities of Jews, remained in Byzantium. New rulers continued to develop provincial cities: in those days, the shipbuilding industry and the descendants of Jewish fishermen began to work on shipyards.
In the VII century n. NS. Middle Eastern Byzantine colonies won and defeated Persian, and then Arab troops. In Haifa, long century remaining a peaceful city, then powerful fortress walls rose. However, the new owners considered the port of acbook more promising and sent efforts to its development, and Haifa fell into decay.
In the XII century, warlike crusaders who have already captured by the time most of the Palestine, got to Haifa. Residents of the city had desperate resistance, for which they were completely destroyed.
Crusaders captured Haifa, settled here and created the Carmelite Order – the only Order of the Crusaders, based on the Holy Land. Their monastery on top of Mount Karmel has been preserved to this day. Soon, Mamli was walked by Palestine in Christian knights and in the course of combat operations were equalized by Haifu with Earth. For several centuries, a large port turned into a poor dilapidated village. Only who came to power in the middle of the XVIII century Bedouin Sheikh Dair El Omar restored the city. Haifa again became a large port city – the second after acbook.
In the XIX century, the carmelite monks, still living in Haifa, built a new monastery. The city became a major pilgrimage center. Templers – Christian sectarians from Germany – founded here their colony. In the second half of the XIX century Baha’u’llah, the creator of Bahaizma – a peace-loving Islamic sect – opened a religious center in Haifa, and after a few decades, his followers were broken on the slopes of Mount Karmel of the Wonderful Beauty.
In 1880, the International Sea Port of Palestine was postponed from AKKO in Haifa. In the 1930s, hundreds of refugees-Jews from Europe arrived in the Haifsky port daily. In 1948, when the state of Israel was created, the Jews constituted most of the population of the city.
Currently, Haifa Along with Tel Aviv is considered the most democratic and tolerant city of the country. And thanks to the Bahai Gardens, more and more tourists come here every year.
Highifa love both indigenous Israelis, and repatriates, and tourists. Many consider it the most beautiful city of Israel. Most of the Haifa is located on mountain slopes among dense thickets of trees, and from the top of the mountains there are breathtaking views. Attractions here are not so much as in Jerusalem, Acre or even Tel Aviv, but to see the most interesting, you will need a few days.
Gardens of incredible beauty, broken on the slopes of Mount Karmel followers of Baha’u’llah, called the "eighth miracle of the world". They are the main attraction Haifa, attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists to the city annually. Flowering terraces and tomb of the Bahai Prophet Baba are under the protection of UNESCO.
In 1850, the young seyida Ali Muhammad was executed, the more famous, like Bab, proclaimed himself by the Prophet and Messiah. His doctrine continued to develop and spread the son of a major official Hussein Ali and Nuri, who later took the name of Baha’u’lla – "Glory of the Lord". For several years, Bab and Baha’u’llah conducted a correspondence, but they personally were not destined to meet.
When Baha’u’llah found out about the death of the "Prophet", then chose the burial place for him on the slope of Mount Karmel. However, the faithful followers hid the Baba body, and only in 1909 the remains were transferred to the Mausoleum built on Mount. His current appearance, the tomb found in 1953 due to the Canadian architects.
Luxurious mansion on Mount Karmel, once belonged to Abdulu-Baha – the first leader of Bahaev after the death of Baha’u’llah – in 1963 he became a residence of the World Center Bahaizma. In 1987, the followers of the teachings decided to break the gardens around the grave of the Baba. Construction ended only in 2001. Historians believe that the prototype of these gardens is the hanging gardens of semiramides. Since then, tourists who come to Israel try to visit Haifa and see the Bahai Gardens with their own eyes.
The entrance to the Bahai Gardens is absolutely free, but you can only go through the picturesque terraces. Excursions are held in the first half of the day in several languages, including in Russian. The group is going not to the entrance to the upper terrace: you need to go down the street Yef NOF to intersections with Daphne Street and go to a small gate, near which people are usually already standing. Those who did not have time for a Russian-speaking tour can go with English-speaking or Helluro-speaking. Personal things are not inspected, but it is not accepted with drinking drinks and food: Bahai consider this manifestation of disrespect. Especially for visitors in the territory of the gardens there are several drinking fountains. Excursion ends near the Mausoleum of Baba with a golden dome, after which tourists are offered to watch a movie about the Bahai Gardens.
In the XIX century, Templers who committed pilgrimage from Germany settled in Palestine. They believed that the country should be restored by Christians, and then the Messiah will come to the Holy Land. One of his colonies The Germans founded at the foot of Mount Karmel, building a half hundreds of stone houses with steep tiled roofs.
For half a century, Templers made a huge contribution to the development of Haifa. Thanks to them, the first hotels, production, hospitals appeared here. At the beginning of World War II, the Great Britain, who owned a mandate for Palestine, deported more than half the Tempiles in Australia and Germany. After the formation of the state of Israel, the remaining Germans who personified fascism in the eyes of the Jews were expelled from the country.
Long time Houses Tempiles Stood abandoned. In the late 1990s, the city authorities decided to renovate them and make one of the main attractions of Haifa. Now in most homes there are cozy cafes and restaurants, boutiques of Israeli designers, hotels and museums. Unfortunately, some houses are still in a deplorable state, but the general view of Templer street leaves a pleasant impression.
Cave of the Prophet Elijah
In the XI century BC. NS. In the Israeli kingdom there lived the prophet Elijah – a fierce opponent of paganism and worship of idols. The cave served as a house where he healed parishioners and engaged in the upbringing of his students. According to legend, he ascended to heaven alive on a fiery chariot and returns to the ground to energ people about the second parish of the Messiah. In the basement of the XIX century building at the foot of Mount Karmel preserved an ancient cave. Israelis are convinced that the Prophet lived and worked miracles here.
Therefore, the cave has a sacred value for residents of all religions. She is visited by businessmen before transactions, students before exams, applicants before interviewing for a new place of work and dreaming about the child women. Will help Elijah and those who desperate to find their love or urgently need money. It is said that all the desires, mounted in a cave, sooner or later come true.
Like the Wall of crying in Jerusalem, the cave is divided by plywood partition on the men’s and female halves. On the partition hanging the texts of prayers in Hebrew for different cases. People with a burning candle in their hands read prayers, and after leaving notes with desires between the ancient stones. In the far corner of the cave behind the screen, the room is hidden, where visitors can pray alone. It is believed that in this room you can turn to God and be heard.
Cave ministers almost always cover the table for visitors, and take a treat – it means to show respect for them, and to the prophet.
In addition to the main attractions, in Haifa there are many interesting museums, parks and two embankments.
Before visiting Haifa, tourists should learn about the features of the city, which under certain circumstances can spoil rest.
In Haifa, it is difficult to find exchangers with a favorable course. On the street Ben-Gurion, from where the most beautiful view of the Bahai gardens, currency can be exchanged only in one bank at the most disadvantageous course. In addition, the Bank takes a big service commission. A more profitable course in private exchanger, which are located near Paris Square (Kikar Paris). Almost all exchangers closes with sunset.
Climb the upper terrace of the Bahai gardens on foot is not easy. Car road loops on the slopes of Mount Karmel, and the way on foot from the bottom terrace will take more than an hour. The short path is laid on steep non-heavy stairs passing right through residential buildings. Only closer to the street Yef NOF, where the entrance to the upper terrace is located, pointers appear. In the fall of 2018, it is planned to open the metro station "Carmelit" after major repairs. To get faster than the top terrace of the Bahaky gardens from the lower city, you need to sit in the subway at the station "Kikar Paris" and drive to the end station "Gan Ha-em", then go through Ha-Nasya Street, roll to Shaar Ha-Levanon and go on her on the iPhe Nof. But the "carmelite" is periodically closed for repairs, and to stop ha-nasses / Daphne can be reached by bus. Find out the bus route and arrival time will help the Moovit application, popular with Israelis.
Room quality in hotels and guest houses does not match the price. Room in the hostel on the outskirts of Haifa can be significantly worse than those similar in the center of Jerusalem, but its cost will be higher. Night in a modest "treshka" without breakfast will cost more than in the Turkish "five star". It is much more profitable to book a room in Haifa or apartments in the entire airbnb aggregator.
Haifa – large transport knot. There is a seaport where cruise liners are moored from other Mediterranean states, an international airport, large auto and railway station.
Aircraft from Ben-Gurion Airports in Tel Aviv and Ovda near Eilat will fly to Haifa Airport. Also in Haifu, charter flights from Cyprus and from Greece. However, air tickets to domestic flights to Israel are very expensive, and much cheaper to get from other cities to Haifa by bus or train.
On the outskirts of the city there is a major bus station "Mercazit Hof Ha Carmel". Here daily arrive hundreds of buses from all over the country. Highifa on the bus can be reached from Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Eilat, small towns of Galilee.
Some buses make stops on major bus station: "Mercatsite ha-Mifratz", "Ha-Shmona" and DR. From the main bus station to the lower city, the bus number 1 goes. The exact schedule of intercity bus flights can be found on the official website of the EGGED bus company, as well as in Moovit and Rome2RIO applications. Tickets are purchased from the driver at a price indicated on the company’s website. Every Friday, the whole country celebrates Shabbat, and long-distance buses stop walking after 16:30. Movement is resumed only on Saturday after 17:00.
Central Station Haifa – Large railway node located in the lower city. Through it, the most important railway is Israel, which stretches from Beer Shev to Nagaria. The train company "ISRAEL RAILWAYS" runs almost around the clock, with the exception of Shabbat.
Make the route and find out the exact time of departure of trains, the platform and the cost of the ticket can be on the official website "Israel Railways", there are messages about changes in routes. It is convenient to buy a ticket to the machine or cashier at the train station. To go to the platform, you need to attach a ticket to the turnstile. The fare in long-distance trains and buses is about the same.
Israel is a small country that is easy to drive around on a rented car. Using the services of a carcharging company, you can get a car directly at the airport. From "Ben Gurion" to Haifa two roads: on the highway number 2 and №4. The distance is approximately the same – about 120 kilometers. It is worth remembering that the long-distance highway in Israel is paid, and the prices for gasoline are very high. Therefore, renting a car justifies himself only if tourists are going to visit the corners of the country away from public transport stops.