Representations of Europeans about Harem Sultan are still based on myths and legends. This is understandable – it was not in the Ottoman Empire of a more closed place for an indiscreet view of a stranger than the abode of Sultanov and concubines. And the Frames of Delacroix, Engra and the books of romanticist writers only contributed to the strengthening of these myths and exaggerations. On that they and romance to make validity.
In fact, in the main Harem of the Empire ("Haram" In Arabic – the Forbidden Women’s Half of the Muslim House) Romance was little. Golden cell (no matter how cool, and the cell!), the place of imprisonment, in which life is regulated by a strict regime and a rigid inner hierarchy. And this female prison was in many respects exemplary – in six centuries of the existence of the Ottoman dynasty, there were time to collapse the rules "Internal regulations" For inhabitants "Houses of happiness", as they called Harem Sultan.
Another thing is that individual "Happy lucky" Spiritically mastered the famous ladies tricks, which allowed to turn into ladies from the slave. In the history of the empire, there is no one case when Sultanov’s concubines not only subordinate to their influence of Mr., but also actively interfered with the state affairs! However, it was possible only to units – to the body, the hearts and the ear of the lording, it was still necessary to somehow get that in the presence of hundreds of competitors was a task a serious.
Many concubines were held in a harem of a lifetime, and not seeing her Mr. Himo. Most of the ladies were completely content with peace, relative idleness and the surrounding luxury. Prior to the early XVI century, no other happiness, except for marble fountains, pools, peacocks, oriental sweets on golden dishes, music and chatter with "Single Camera" – And only in rare cases, the bed of Mr! – for harem inhabitants and was not envisaged. It contained exclusively slaves. There is a century tradition in a harem of concubines, and to marry the famous daughters of the neighbors, interrupted during the reign of Sultan Bayazid II – his successors began to marry and slaves.
The appearance in the harem wives diluted peace and a leisurely idleness of the harem by many problems. Everyone knows how the mother-in-law is sold in the same apartment – and here dozens, hundreds of owners – slaves, wives, their princess daughters! In order for the whole family to turn into an explosive "Communal" With its inevitable intrigues, swamas and jealousy, it was necessary to create a hard mechanism for controlling restless "Babi kingdom".
Centuries developed code of behavior and distribution of responsibilities in a harem in complexity and organizedness did not infuriate the military charter. At the top of the family pyramid, the Sultan reign. The second step was held by his mother – Valid, even below were his wife (Kadyn Efendi), under them – favorite, and at the very bottom – ordinary slave-concubines (Jaria). This pyramid was mobile and Sybka – any member of the mini-society could go to one or several levels up – or, on the contrary, roll down.
The only one who could not change the social role initially to him is a Harere officer "Security services" – Eunuch. Although in their conditionally male community existed its own "Tabel about ranks", Clearly fixing rights and obligations. For most Europeans, accustomed to elan with a shade of neglectful irony, will surely become a revelation that the top of this "castrated interlayer" possessed at the court of Sultan influence that most courtesy envied. So, let’s say, the chief eunuch occupied the third step in the palace hierarchy, passing forward himself only the first great Vizier and chapter of the Church of Sheikh-Ul-Islam! Defined rights and freedoms, oddly enough, possessed and the main inhabitants of the Harem – Slave!
The first concubines appeared in the Ottoman harem in the XIV century. Most often by sellers of girls in slave markets, their own parents were played. The deal allowed them to solve three problems – to get rid of extra eaters in the family, to get a solid cash remuneration and ensure the wonderful daughters – according to generally accepted standards – the future. For young concubines, Garem became a house, school and work job. Girls were taught music, etiquette, literacy, and a little later – specific art that could be needed in case of some of them the Lord will pay. Slaves received daily money allowances, and on the occasion of palace celebrations – valuable gifts. Problems of outfits and cosmetics for them simply did not exist – everything was acquired at the expense of the treasury.
The fact that the foreclinar remained the property of the lord, albeit the unknowing in silk and jewel, no one embarrassed. The position of the legitimate wife of Orthodox Muslim is a little different from slave. In addition, all these mercy had to partially work out. And not at all the fact that the first comes to mind when "concubine". Usually "Access to the body" Mr. had only about a dozen women – slaves, favorite and wives; For hundreds of others, not intimate, but rather economic responsibilities. One slave followed the ceremonies and the inner schedule, the second – for health "families", The third was answered by "anti-bearing" Safety (all the Kushans cooked by Sultan, held a preliminary test), the fourth – for washing, the fifth – for the process of the ablution of his lord, the sixth – for the preparation of coffee, the seventh – for his wine cellar. Since men entrance to the territory of Harem was banned under the fear of the death penalty (eunuhi not in the account – and besides, they were already said, grabbed their duties), in fact all work "in house" lay on the shoulders of women – the benefit of the lack of working force was not.
Among the harem posts are also unexpected – for example, slave-chapters "Protocol services" Harem, Slave Key Keeping from treasury and slave keeper of large sultan printing. Of course, those responsible posts in the harem vertical vertical were no longer slaves in the usual meaning of this word. Sultan not only honored their special trust, but after the time he gave free – about the best recommendation for the future groom "Released Woman East" could not and dream.
The amazing document of the XVIII century came to this day – a kind of standard Sultan Makhmuda Sultan I: Wine Cellar – 17 Slaves, the maintenance of the princes – 72, other economic work – 230. And only 15 slaves officially listed by the favorites of Sultan! After that, the situation about the harem as an endless love orgy lose all meaning. Sultan, although he was exalted by the court swords to heaven, was still not – and the mortal man could not satisfy all his wards for the ladies at all. Therefore, for most inhabitants, Garem remained a prison in one sense – as a restriction on their sex life.
But surprisingly the other. After nine years, any slave, which Sultan never invited to divide the bed with him, had the right to leave his cage! Such "Locked male attention" Bedolag Sultan usually endowed dowry, gave the house and even looked for her husband. True, not everyone used this right – a peaceful life in the harem of many arranged. And women, as it often happened not only in the Ottoman Empire, voluntarily long imprisoned, preferring his difficulty of living in freedom. Especially since the remaining no one took their chance "Emboss people" in a harem hierarchy – become a favorite, and there, you look, and jump out in Sultanov’s wife! Usually, Sultan highlighted eight slaves – four were appointed permanent servants in his personal rest, and four more fasteners were built in the rank of Favorite (Güzid), whose "service" proceeding exclusively in the false lord. That Güzid, with which Sultan was going to spend the night, received a dear gift from him, another waiting for her in the morning – in case the Ladyer remained satisfied. The pregnant favorite was translated into a category "happy" (Ikbal), and after the birth of a child, she was waiting for even greater female happiness – the official title of wife.
It is curious that even Sultans were not free from restrictions on personal life. So, the night from Friday on Saturday they were obliged to spend only with one of the wives. And the short-lasting invitation three Fridays had the right to turn to the judge for the protection of the filthy rights. The Lords of the Ottoman Empire under the law was from four to eight wives, and in order to avoid overlays, one of the slaves led "Accounting magazine", where scrupulously fixed all the dates of the sultan with their spouses.
Over the centuries, Osmans have experienced a strange attraction to INIERK wives. Above others were valued proud black-haired daughters of the Caucasus and full blonde Slavs. Many did not even have to captivate: it is known that the Caucasian Princes often sent themselves to the daughters in the Sultan Garem, hoping that those would like Sultan and with time would become his wives.
History has kept the names of some Sultanos European. Suleiman’s beloved wife, on the board of which the empire reached a flourish, was Hurrem – abducted and sold in a harem daughter of the Ukrainian Orthodox Priest Anastasia Lisovskaya, famous for the name Roksolana. She conquered Sultan not only by beauty, but also by education, writing his spouse poems in Arabic, – for the XVI century, the achievement is exceptional.
After a half century, the path of the Popovskaya Daughter repeated the Frenchman Emmy de Rivery, Cousin Napoleon Josephine. She was also kidnapped by pirates, sold to Algerian governor, and he gave his beauty to his lord – Sultan Abdul Hamid I. Under the name of the hollow ("Usland heart") Treught by Islam Emmy became his fourth wife. And when her son himself took the throne in the Istanbul Palace, the Emmy Title took the title of Valida – "queen-mother". That’s how they lived a long six centuries – Sultans and their numerous families.
The end of all this was put on World War II. Turkey entered into it on the side of Germany and after the defeat was occupied by the powers of the Entente. Revolution began in the country under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. When the victorious revolutionaries entered Istanbul, they were waiting for an empty Sultansky Palace. The last of Ottomans fled on the British warship, and all his wives, daughters, favorites, slaves and eunuchs, having lost their lord, who walked around where where.
In the same place, in the Sultansky Palace, in March 1924 the Turkish Republic was proclaimed. One of the first laws of which was the law on the abolition of the Institute of Harem.