When we are talking about the highly developed countries of the West, we do not think about them and Japan. For us, this is true, the Far East, but we say: the West. But the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands and the Pacific states of the United States are called Japan together with China and Korea countries of the Far East, although it is from them it is located in the far west.
Of course, from an economic point of view, Japanese and air ports, large cities, iron and road, department stores, banks, offices, universities remind the same institutions of Western Europe and North America. Except the inscriptions are made by hieroglyphs, and not letters. But any country of the East always has its pronounced – in each country its own, but in general, it is typical "Oriental" Colorite.
It is close to get acquainted with the spiritual, artistic and religious life of the Japanese, with their temples, rites, traditional theater, old dancing and music, and you will find a lot of features similar to Korea, China, India. And all this will absolutely do not seem to be what we see from the peoples of the West. But try to enter the family life of the Japanese, to be inserted into the atmosphere, reigning at his homely focus, and you will find such features that do not define unequivocally either as Western, nor as eastern. They will have to be called specifically Japanese.
Kid – not Russian, not Japanese, not German, not Chinese: he’s just a little man. With any other than the same man from any country, it will easily find a common language in the game. Only subraply, mastering the language of the mother, and with him and the norms of behavioral culture, he gradually becomes a little German, Japanese or Chinese. And yet, perhaps, it can be said that a little Japanese earlier and stronger becomes Japanese than a small German – German. Very specific and even tough requirements makes him all the situation of the traditional Japanese house. Paul coated with absolutely clean mats, for which you can walk only in socks. Slippers that need to wear, leaving a dumping veranda. Wooden Gate Sandals, in which you should rebuild, leaving the veranda into the yard. Embedded wizard-covers, replacing glass and curtains; With any careless touch, holes appear in them. Sliding cardboard partitions-fusum instead of the inland walls, completely sound-permeable, so that the willy-noilies will try to behave quietly. All these soverees raises in Japanese children, the skills of very restrained, disciplined, inappropriate behavior, accuracy, cleanliness, pedantry. In the family dominates the cult of father – an employee, a breadwinner, unconditional authority in all matters; Fish the father of the child begin to learn as soon as he can keep his head. Punishment, especially physical, very rare. But universal reinforcing gazes, the long complaint about the senior grievances caused much more than slaps and bending. At least on a child who begins to realize himself with Japanese. Although he himself also does not know.
Japanese child feels his connection with the house, family, with his parents, with grandparents, probably, and thanks to this existing holidays only in Japan, the holidays of children. In the spring – March 3 – celebrate "Holiday girls". Its origins to rise to VI – VIII centuries; still called Hina Matsouri – "Holiday Cuppet" and Momo-but Schuck – "Peach blossom feast". For girls, shelves are satisfied with the dolls with whom they play in the days of the holiday. Basic dolls Two: Emperor and Empress (in the past – the bride and groom). Girls holiday – not state, but it is sure to celebrate in families. Moreover, the first shelf of the girl gives her grandmother, Mother Mama. From many Japanese, we heard that Hina dolls they keep all their lives. This is a symbol of communication with the parent home, and the memory of childhood. And even the memory of the elders who have already gone, – Grandma and Grandfather.
May 5 celebrate state "Holiday of children". A few more decades ago it was called "Holiday boys" and further "Holiday Irisov". Long before that day in the villages and in cities – near residential buildings, near the institutions, in balconies and even on the roofs of multi-storey buildings – the sixths appear to which the plated carps are attached, sometimes nine times in length. The carp from the Japanese – a symbol of courage, the ability to overcome life adversity, in a word, those qualities that parents want to see in their sons. And a few weeks of carpets soar over the villages, towns, cities of Japan.
In mid-November, the time of the holiday and boys and girls coming to seven, five and three years. It is called: Citigo-san – "Seven or five or three". On this day, parents lead elegantly dressed children in the Shinto temples. Kids pass the rite of purification, get the blessing of priests and, of course, gifts from parents. And the most of them are beloved – Long White Sweet Candy-Tyants Ame. AME sold in special color packages. On each package of an image of an old man and old women, turtles and storks, bamboo and pine twigs. All these are symbols for children, longevity, health, happiness.
However, not only the holidays of children contribute to the strengthening of family bonds in Japan. In all traditional celebrations, children take an active part along with adults, together with their parents, with grandparents.
Japanese psychologists believe that one of the key aspects of the Japanese household psyche is "AMAEE", And this word, they find it difficult to find an accurate equivalent in European languages. Verb "AMAERA" You can approximately translate as "shove", "shape", "Prit", "Turn away". "AMAEE" First of all, the attitude of the child to the mother, which he finds warm and defense. It is to mother – unlike the famous alienation with his father. Over the years, this feeling goes into a sense of good dependence on a patron, who is older, stronger, smarter who protects against the troubles of an external, cold, lying beyond the walls of the world. Scientists believe that a strong need for "AMAEE" Makes an important feature of psychology and adult Japanese.
All people love their home, but everyone in their own way. According to the behavior of the Japanese, there may be a deceptive impression that outside the house they are often better than at home. Working Japanese at home is quite small. He calmly puts up with a clock and even a two-hour trip every day from home to work one way; He often delayed insignificant about work after the end of the working day, willingly takes not even too generously paid overtime work; completely and next he can with colleagues after work go sit in the bar or cafe and go back home over midnight. In general, the wife and children, in addition to the weekend days (which men are also often spent outside the house), see the father of the family not so much.
In fact, the Japanese are very attached to their home. The ship is much longer spent in swimming than in the port, but in the tattoo of the sailor you can often see not the steering wheel, but anchor. So for the Japanese house – this is something like a pier in a stormy sea of life.
Even today, the ideal of the Japanese – let a small, but still a separate house, preferably at least with the most tiny, in two or three bushes, but still a kindergarten. Apartment in a multi-storey house, of course, also benefit, but it’s no matter how real accommodation. With an acute lack of land in the country, the middle Japanese can afford a very modest living space, incomparably less than in Europe, not to mention America. That is, communication with friends and relatives, most often happens in Japan outside the house – in restaurants and cafes. Celebrations – in the communion pavilions. Holidays are acquired by the type of picnics on the lap of nature.
The Japanese house is a deep intimate, limited to a narrow family circle. Outside of the house, the Japanese behaves mostly in a European – walks in a jacket, sitting on a chair, eats sandwiches or spaghetti, drinking coffee or beer. At home, he disguises in kimono, located naturally on the floor pillows, drinks a tart green Japanese tea, eats traditional Japanese food. At home, it rests from stresses and conventions of business and public life.
In Japan, all the time publish a huge number of sociological research on family life. Often in them you can read that husbands and wives in Japan rarely spend their free time together, they almost do not speak with each other, do not share their impressions and experiences. Having been in Japan more than once, we still came to the idea that these statistical data did not always correspond to real life. After all, it is not by chance that the same sociological surveys have shown that the number of people, satisfied with their family life, is extremely large in Japan. It reaches in some cases up to 70 – 80 percent, which is practically impossible to meet in any other – even succeeding – the country. True, it should be borne in mind that in Japanese character combined such features as the ability to be content with small, strictly judge itself and ruthlessly evaluate the likely situation. How much we saw Japanese families, each time we had a firm conviction that prosperous families prevail in Japan. In them, husbands and wives belong to each other with care and warmth. But according to traditional restraint, they do not advertise these feelings in humans. Due to this stability of the Japanese family, the country came out today in the first place in the world by the life expectancy: almost 80 years for men and even more for women.
In a full, traditionally organized Japanese house there are several nodal centers. Aesthetic center – Toconoma Niche in one of the walls in which a scroll of painting, varying depending on the season, is a vase with flowers. However, these days in Tokonom are often tedded.
In hot summer days, when all the screen is spread out, not to miss the slightest breeze, the best of all, of course, on the veranda opens in the garden. But the walled winter evenings when the cold crawls from the street through thin walls, the family is going to Kotats. In Japanese homes in general, and in traditional especially, the system of heating, must be said very imperfect. The kitchen center is put into a special kitchen extension, and the residential premises does not heat. No furnaces or calorificates. There are either carbon black carbon black coal – Khibati, who warm only if you sit close to them, or embedded in the wooden floor, scored clay and also dried coal open foci – Irry. Irri food do not prepare. They boil water for tea, which the Japanese drink in any occasion and without reason. But to warm up, Irry turn into Kotats. To do this, over a hearth with smoldering coals, they put a low table and cover it like a tablecloth, a big quilted blanket. On top of the blanket you can put a thick square board, which is convenient to put the dishes. The family sits around Kotatas, the legs fit under the blanket, closer to the warm coal, and the floors of the blankets can be closed under the lower back and bliss in relative comfort. There would be no legs warm, and that the head in the cold is not a trouble.
For residents of the northern countries, perhaps such a way to combat cold will seem not very tempting, although in the conditions of a relatively soft Japanese winter it is quite effective. But besides the purely physical heat of Kotatsu, the Japanese appreciate it warmly, so to speak, moral. When the whole family is going around Kotats, it emphasizes her unity and warm attitude to each other. Kotatsa, as it were, equalizes children with parents, especially with his father, contributes to overcoming the alienation between him and children. Having gathered under a shared blanket, children literally learned "Do not pull the blanket". And this will later affect their future life. Kotatsu – a symbol of a Japanese house, his comfort, his family solidarity. It is not by chance that in the second half of the 20th century, when various electric heating devices appeared in Japan, along with reflectors and electrocamines, the highest distribution was obtained by an electric row – a table with a heating element, fortified on the bottom of the table top. Modern, perfect – but all the same Kotats.
The family’s union near the home focus is primarily due to the Japanese consciousness with New Year’s holidays, which in modern Japan – vacation time, vacation for most residents of the rising sun country. A few more decades ago it was believed that for the new year the whole family must necessarily be assembled. New Year for the Japanese – also the universal birthday. Yes, this is exactly what is so far, according to tradition, the age of each person increases for a year Happy New Year. Children give special gifts for the new year, on long-standing tradition. A gift is called O-Tosi Lada – "New Year’s treasure". This is a small converter, in which parents hide coin. The meaning of the gift is: parents wish the child of health, well-being, good luck in the coming year. Convertors are decorated with the image of that animal whose name is wearing a new year. So, this year – dogs.
Today, when the 20th century on the outcome, changes continue in Japan, maybe not so obvious, as after World War II, but, essentially, perhaps even more significant. Family couples are increasingly preferring to the old men, grandparents, lived separately from them. Youth becomes more independent, less feels their dependence on older. To the American concept "Self Maid Meng" ("man who did himself") is still quite far, but the shifts in this direction are already available. New building materials appeared – pressed panels, window and door frames from corner aluminum, so that cardboard and paper shirms no longer determine the appearance of new houses. This changes the style of relationship between people even in small settlements. Previously, it was considered usual, in the most small item to enter the courtyard of the neighbor, a little bit to move the covers and, shouting the formula of a friendly apology, call the owners. In the corner door with the lock and handle, psychologically knocking more difficult, even if it is not locked. Neighbors began to go to each other much less. Batteries in modern houses make unnecessary old catac. However, if Kotatsu was needed only for heating!
Of course, these changes occur gradually and not everywhere, but little to penetrate into the masses. But while AMAEA affects the life of the Japanese, their life and relationships with each other, the demand for Kotatsu (let modern, electric!) Warm, common catacu – remains.