Hebron (Hebron)

Hebron (El Khalil) – City on the West Bank of the Jordan River. 80% of the city is under the control of the Palestinian National Administration and refers to the zone A. 20% of the city controls the army of Israel’s defense. Hebron is located on the mountain of the same name 927 meters high 30 kilometers south of Jerusalem. Hebron Square – 74.1 km², population – 229.26 thousand people, more than 166 thousand of which – Palestinian Arabs. Hebron is one of the oldest in the world and the Jews are considered a sacred city along with Jerusalem, Tiberia and Safet.

It is known that until 1300, Hebron was the center of Canaan culture. According to the Old Testament, refiums lived here – the giants who were children of Khanney women and fallen angels.

In the XIII century BC. NS. The city won the Jews and since then continuously lived here until 1929.

In 950 g. to N. NS. Hebron became the first capital of the king of David. Here Avasal, the son of David, proclaimed himself to the king and raised the uprising against his father. With the king of Rowamam Hebron was one of the most important cities in the south of the Jewish kingdom.

From 597 to 539 BC. NS. A significant part of the Jewish population of the Jews was forcibly resettled in Babylonia, after which Hebron settled the idumes. Under Alexander Yanna, the city became part of the Khasmonia kingdom.

Under Herod the Great and his sons, Hebron was part of Judea, after – part of the Roman province of Judea, later renamed Palestine. In the Roman period, Hebron was a small city and was called Avramius.

The development of Hebron began during the time of Byzantine Board – the city was at the intersection of roads from Jerusalem to Egypt and through Peter in Jordan. When Byzantine, the famous mahpel cave, sacred place for Jews, was used as a church. Jews were exposed to exile and fled from Palestinian cities, including Hebron, to other states.

In 614, Hebron was busy the Persian Army of Hoshrov II, but soon the Byzantines took the city.

In 638, Hebron, like the whole Palestine, won the Arabs. The city was called Khalil al-Rahman. However, Muslims were much loyal to the Jews, and they began to return to the city. A synagogue was built near the mahpel cave. Thanks to the Jewish merchants, trading with Bedouins and other peoples in the Negev desert zone.

In 1100-1187, Hebron was under the authority of the Crusaders, who again began to cast the Jews from Palestinian cities, and those who did not want to leave, killed. The city received a new name – Castellum. Muslim mosque Crusaders turned into church, and synagogue – to the monastery. By the middle of the XII century, not a single Jew left in the city.

In 1187, Muslim troops led by the ruler of Salah Ad-Din expelled the Crusaders from Hebron. Jews again allowed was to settle in Palestinian cities.

In 1260, Mamli won Palestine and turned Hebron to the temporary capital of their province. Despite the fact that new rulers were not tolerated to the Jews, the Jewish community began to revive in the city. In the meantime, the invaders issued a law prohibiting Jews to enter the sacred cave of Makhpela – it was possible to rise only until the seventh stage of the eastern entrance to the building. This ban acted to the six-day war.

In 1516, the territory of Palestine seized the troops of the Ottoman Empire, led by Sultan Selim I.

In 1517, after several battles, the broken army of Mamlukov finally left Palestinian cities. Jews expelled from Spain began to come to Hevron. Soon the new community appeared in the city, a new synagogue was built "Abraham Avina" – the most beautiful in Palestine. In the Jewish quarter, located around the synagogue, lived numerous rabbis and sages of Torah, who wrote famous books on Judaism. Also in Hebron, some Kabbalists from Safat moved, which had a significant impact on the spiritual life of the local community. Life in the Jewish quarter was boiling: there were schools, itchiv, public institutions, as well as numerous shopping shops and craft workshops. By the end of the XVII century in Hebron, as in other cities of Palestine, almost no Muslim remained.

In the XVII-XVIII centuries, the population of the Jewish quarter rapidly grew. Since the Jews could not build houses outside the wall of the quarter, and the places were less and less, the existing houses were exercised by additional floors. Despite the fact that the Hebron community was very poor, every pilgrim could stop for several days in the boarding house.

At the beginning of the XIX century, Hasidi Khabad settled in Hebron. Soon in the city there were new public institutions and yeshiva. Many Jews Hebron got the opportunity to work, which improved the economic situation of the community. By the end of the XIX century, the Jews were almost a quarter of the city’s population.

At this time, the Turkish authorities tightened their attitude to the Jews. There was a ban on the purchase of land, cash will constantly grow. During World War I, the Jews of Hebron were again persecuted.

After the war, Palestine was under the British mandate. Arab leaders called on to destroy the Jewish community in Hebron, to which the British authorities did not pay attention. In 1929, a massive pogrom occurred in the city. 67 Jews died, hundreds were crippled. Beit Hadassing Hospital, in which all Hebron Jews were treated, was looted and destroyed. In 1936, the Jewish population was evacuated from Hebron.

From 1948 to 1967, Hebron was occupied by Jordan. During the six-day war, 1967 was under the control of Israel.

In 1968, the initiative group led by Rabbi Moshe Levinger decided to resume the Jewish presence in Hebron. A large Jewish quarter "Abraham-Avin" appeared.

In early 1997, in accordance with Hebron Agreements, the city was divided into two sectors: H1 and H2. The H1 sector, which is about 80% of the city’s territory, and in which 120 thousand live. Palestinians, passed under the control of the Palestinian administration. Sector H2, which inhabit 30 thousand. Palestinians, remains under the control of the Israeli army to protect the inhabitants of the Jewish Quarter. Go from the sector to the sector through any of the 16 Israeli checkpoints. In Hebron, armed clashes between the Israeli army, Jewish settlers and Arabs occur.

Today in Hebron, despite the intense political situation, about 1000 Jews constantly live.

Tourists visit Hebron, mainly in order to see the cave of Makhpel. But in this city there are other attractions, and the architecture of the old part of Hebron resembles Jerusalem.

Cave Makhpela (Patriarch Cave)

Mahpela Cave – a huge crypt in the center of the historic part of Hebron. According to biblical legends, Jewish forefathers, Isaac and Jacob, as well as their wives of Sarra, Rebekka and Lia are buried here. According to legend, Abraham bought this place at Hetta Efron for 400 silver shekels. It is believed that the Body of Adam and Eva. In Judaism, the cave is worshiped as the second holiness place – after the temple mountain.

Above the cave rise an ancient monumental structure with walls height up to 12 m. Archaeological studies dating this construction I century BC. NS., However, she repeatedly subjected to restoration. Under the building there are ancient caves that were never fully investigated due to the religious holiness of the place. Inside the room with marble, in the center of it are the tombs of Abraham and Sarry.

In the Middle Ages, the monks of the Crusaders found skeletons of several people and fifteen jugs, full bones. Most likely, the remains belonged to the Jews who, during life, wanted to be buried near the shrine.

Now most of the construction (75%) belongs to Muslims and serves a mosque, and only a small room (25%) is highlighted for synagogue. However, during the Jewish holidays, the whole structure functions as a synagogue, and during Muslim – as a mosque. Every year, the main shrine of Hebron attend hundreds of thousands of tourists and pilgrims from different countries of the world. Especially great a stream of visitors during the Jewish holidays Peach and Sukkot.

Mahpel cave is open around the clock. Admission is free, but you can order an excursion in English, French, Russian, Spanish, as well as in Hebrew.

Mamvrian Oak

In Hebron, the evergreen oak is preserved to this day, under which, according to legend, Abraham took God. The place where Oak grows, has long been identified with the biblical oak mamra. To this day, the descriptions of the Mamvrian oak, made by pilgrims in the XII century. In the late 1990s, the roots of the tree completely died out, and the bark dried. To preserve oak, it strengthened with metal backups. Soon the tree began to give young shoots.

In 2019, the most ancient part of the tree collapsed. Now the young tree is growing here, which continues to shoot. An ancient trunk will be exhibited in the temple of the Holy Frames.

Monastery of the Holy Trinity (Movewardness in honor of the Holy Framets)

3 kilometers from the mahpel cave, in the H1 sector under the control of the Palestinian National Administration, is located Russian Orthodox Men’s Monastery.

In the second half of the XIX century near the Mamvrian oak, a stone two-storey house for Christian pilgrims was built by the efforts of the Russian spiritual mission in Jerusalem Archimandrite Antonina. Due to the difficult situation in the city where mostly Muslims lived, the question of the construction of the Orthodox church in this place was raised only in 1904. Permission to build a temple was obtained only in 1914, after which the temple of the Holy Frames was built.

In 1997, the monastery was transferred to the Moscow Patriarchate.

Hebron (Hebron)

Hebron is the most interesting city of Palestine, but the situation here is extremely inhibiting. On both hills, between which the city is located, you can see in the Israeli military base.

In the territories of the city under the military control of Israel, the border guard soldiers constantly meet, which patrol the streets and follow any movement. On the roofs of many houses there are observation tower, and Israeli snipers can shoot a rubber bullet at any time, if they find someone’s behavior of suspicious. For their own safety, it is necessary to behave naturally, not express the stormy emotions and not take pictures of the soldiers.

Local teenagers are extremely aggressive: as entertainment, they love to throw by the stones of Israeli soldiers, but can go to tourists. In addition, Hebron Arabs are confident: guests of the city are photographed them in order to transfer pictures to Israeli security forces.

Orthodox Jews are weapons with them in case of an attack of Arabs – such a picture can be seen only in Hebron.

Palestinian families can live in one house, and Jewish, but at the same time the house will be divided by grille, barbed wire or metal sheets: Israeli authorities thus try to protect their citizens from attacks from Palestinians. Streets in many places are also bombarded with high fences or concrete walls.

In city markets, life was boiling a few years ago, but now they are closed and bombarded with walls. Streets of the deserts, tourists in Hebron – a rarity.

Despite the proximity to Jerusalem, the climate of Hebron is noticeably different from the Moscow. Here is a fairly hot summer and warm winter, but due to the location in the mountainous area of ​​the sediment in Hebron can fall out in the summer, which is rare for most regions of Israel.

The hottest months in Hebron – July and August. Temperature at this time is held in the range of + 30 ° C. Even heat-loving tourists with difficulty tolerant weather with difficulty tolerant weather, and hot gadgets are impossible to take. In the summer months in Hebron it is very easy to burn. If a light wind blows, the heat is moved much easier. At the same time after sunset, it is noticeably cold.

Autumn in Israel does not happen: hot summer is sharply replaced in winter. At the end of November, it is cold, there are strong shines, blowing the impustary, penetrating the winds. Rainy season ends in February.

The most comfortable weather in Hebron for tourists from the middle strip – from March to the end of May and from late September to mid-November.

Since there is no international airport in Palestine, tourists can get to Palestinian city only through Israel.

From Jerusalem

To get to Hebron, you need to sit on the central bus station of Jerusalem to any bus to Kiryat Arba, after learning the exact schedule on the bus company Egged.

From the checkpoint on the road from Kiryat Arba, it is necessary to walk through the PPC to the Arab part of Hebron, where the main attractions of the city are located. The path will take about 20 minutes.

You can also drive from the bus station near the Damascus gates on the blue Arab bus to Azaria and transfer to the yellow minibus to Hebron.

On the rented car to get to Hebron from Israel is much easier: checking documents on the PPC does not take much time, and you can drive directly to the mahpel cave – there is parking. Since Makhpel is under the military control of Israel, tourists will have to go through another check of documents.

Also in the capital of Israel, you can buy an organized excursion to Hebron. Groups always accompanies armed guard. Guides in Hebron – Local Jews who prefer to focus on the modern political situation in the city, and not at all on his historical meaning. At the same time, soldiers who patrol the streets are quietly relate to tourist groups: the guides thoroughly think over the route and do not allow tourists to make an extra step to the side, explaining this concern about their security.

From Bethlehem

Those who want to stay in Palestine for several days and see her the most interesting sights, it is more convenient to stay in Bethlehem – in this city it is easy to find accommodation on Booking or Airbnb. From Bethlehem goes goes to Hebron. Check the schedule and exact location of the minibus is the easiest whole of the owner of the placement.

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