Hradec Králové (Hradec Králové)
Gradec Kralove (Hradec Kralove) – City in the northeast of the Czech Republic at the merger of the Laba River (Elba) and Orlice. Laba River crosses the city, separating the old city from the areas of the new building. Population 96 036 Krata (2009).
Gradean Crawl is one of the main historical cities in Eastern Czech Republic and one of the most ancient cities in the country.
In the Middle Ages, Hradz Kralov was famous for powerful fortification facilities. However, they are not preserved to this day: in 1884, the historical core was transformed: the shafts and walls were demolished, and in their place there is a park.
First mentioned in the 10th century as the commercial settlement of Slavnikovichi, in 995 after the victory of the prejudils over his opponents, Gradeans-Kralov became one of the princely residences.
In 1225, the King of Premysl Ottokar I increased its status to the royal city, founding the castle, the place of his frequent stay, like his heirs. Then, for several centuries, the city was a residence
Widget Korolev (hence the name).
In the XIV century I am experiencing flourishing: the church of the Holy Spirit is built, the city rights are coded, the charters of handicraft workshops were adopted, the townspeople received the royal brewing privilege of beer. By the end of the XIV century, Gradeans-Klolov was the second in the meaning of the city of the Czech kingdom after Prague.
During the Gusitsky wars, the city began to the side of the Taborites under the commodity of Jan Allie, which was also buried here after his death in 1424. After the military ruin, Gladets-Klolov is experiencing a second period of prosperity at the King of Jiří from Podbrad and Vladislava II Yagellon. However, after the transition of power to the Dynasty of the Habsburgs, he loses its meaning.
Gradean Crawl suffered greatly from the series of wars: thirty years (1618-1648), seven-year (1756-1763), a large fire in 1762. Here they placed the garrison, then the enemies raided, then the city was trying forcibly catholized. By the end of the wars, only 200 buildings out of 700 were suitable for housing, the number of residents decreased by 70%, and the city turned into a ghost of his former majesty. The raids of Prussians into the country forced the King of Joseph II, the co-ofgraduker of Mary Teresia, to turn Goldez to the Citadel (by the time Gladets-Klolov submitted to Austria-Hungary). What was fulfilled from 1766 to 1789. Existed the citadel not long – already in 1866. She was dismantled as unnecessary: came up with Prussians, and the city unfolded new construction did not give his walls.
At the beginning of the XX of restless century, the city was rebuilt in the styles of functionalism and modernism, these buildings still stand on the embankment. It was then that the founder of the Czech architectural cubism Joseph Grohar showed his talent in all its glory. Almost all the Master’s projects are implemented in Prague and in Gradz-Klolov, and if in Prague they are somehow lost among many architectural masterpieces of different eras, then in Gradz Cralov, they are in sight – thanks to them the city became «urban sample of the modern city».
Thus, now the city is a medieval kernel, surrounded from all sides by unique buildings of the early last century.
Gothic Cathedral of the Holy Spirit was built in the XIV century. Inside it is worth looking at the Gothic altar (XV century), Altar painting Peter Brandla and Tin Captive Font (1406), brought here by hussites from a nearby monastery. In the cathedral was buried by Jan Zhizha, the leader of the troops of the gusites. Then his body on the orders of the emperor was seized from the grave and destroyed.
White Tower (White Tower) – The second highest in the Czech Republic after the bell tower of the Cathedral of St. Vita in Prague. Tower height 71 m was built in 1580 from white sandstone (hence and name). Used the tower as a watch and as a fire cilaplan. It is believed that the tower is the most important monument of the Renaissance era in the city. Bell tower weighing 10 tons and a diameter of more than two meters (the second largest in the Czech Republic) was cast 1509.
Astronomical clock on the tower made in 1591., Were replaced by hours of work of the master Joseph Godzhkin in 1829. The clock draws attention to the fact that the big arrow shows the clock, small – minutes.
To the white tower adjoins Chapel of the Holy Clement (1717). Built on the site of the oldest in the city of Church. In addition to its direct destination, it also was used for storing salt, grain and weapons. The dome of the chapel is crowned brightly sparkling even in cloudy weather Papal Tiara and two crossbar keys.
Museum of Eastern Czech Republic (Museum of Eastern Bohemia) – Located in a monumental house built in 1909-1912 on the project of the architect Yana Koters – one of the founders of Czech modern architecture. The museum contains archaeological, historical, natural, applied, ethnographic and numismatic collections.
Huge Aquarium (Obří AKVáRIUM) – The unique landmark of Goldez Kralove. About 500 a wide variety of freshwater fish of Central and South America lives surrounded by about 140 species of plants, which is an amazing example of symbiosis created by the efforts of enthusiasts from the biologists.
It deserves attention as a huge modern building of the water park with multi-tiered pools, water roller rollers, saunas and artificial approach.
In the building of the aquarium, there is also a cafe-confectionery, where you can watch the piranhams in the aquarium, and every Thursday – for feeding fish from the hands of divers.
Town Hall – The first mention of it refers to 1418, but she did not carry his initial type through the century – too much deprivation fell to the share of the city. Symmetric turrets with a clock that the building is very coming, were attached, for example, in 1787., And the second floor was completed in the XIX century. The last reconstruction performed the architect V. Rejchl from 1913 to 1924.
Now in the town hall there is a museum where you spend different temporary exhibitions, and on the first floor there is a model of the city. In a small green house adjacent to the town hall on the left, there is a city turbule.
Residence Bishopata – One of the most impressive buildings in the Baroque style in the city was built on the site of three burgher houses in 1709-1716. According to the project of the architect Santini. The fire of 1897 damaged the authentic slate roof of the building, so now it is made of decorative slate, made of more modern materials.
Inside the residence it is worth looking at the chapel of St. Carla Borromio (1720-1730) with frescoes depicting St. Peter and Paul.
Church of the Ascension of the Virgin Mary – It was built by Jesuits on the project of the Italian architect Carlo Lurago in 1654-1666. After a fire 1762 g. only frescoes in the chapel of St. Ignatius and painting survived «The glorification of Saint Ignatia Loiola» Work Peter Brandla (1730). The church was rebuilt many times, so the Roman Ile-Jesu (to which Jesuit Churches around the world is different), it doesn’t look much like anything – only vaguely something fishes in the middle of the facade in the top.