On the Pyrenean Peninsula, any ham, even boiled and in the plastic shell, is customary to call Hamon. Probably therefore the Spaniards are not experiencing a special pitue to this word. After all, the truth is difficult to treat Pafos to the fact that every day eat for breakfast, lunch or dinner. But among the diverse ham assortment there are real masterpieces that "Increased" to national treasures. And above all it is Pata Negra, which is translated as "Black leg". Xamon with such a prose name made from meat pigs of a unique Iberian breed. These animals are not only externally different from their fellow, but also live in special "Royal" conditions.
All those who have been in Spain know that in almost every city there is a restaurant or bar with the name Museo del Jamon, or, in Russian, "Museum of ham". Hanging from the ceiling and sourcing appetizing smell dried pork ham – not only the main decoration of institutions, but also the main "Heroes" menu. Here you can try a lot of branded dishes made from Hamon. And if in this list of eggs an inexperienced visitor is easy to get lost, then with the choice of the ham itself, everything is very simple: it is only two types – "Iberico" or "serrano".
Their production volume can be divided into two strongly unequal parts. One nor little is about 90%, is "Hamon Serrano". Without a doubt, this product is worthy of the highest praise. Consorcio Del Jamon Serrano Espanol is monitored for his quality. And in Spanish consortia designed to control production technology, even the mouse without checking does not slip – still, thereby depends on the prestige of national products and ultimately contribute to the country’s economy.
But still, despite the shared taste "serrano", – This is a product for daily use. His Spaniards prefer to export, not without reason, believing that foreigners, balding themselves, Hamon only from time to time, is not given to understand such subtleties. For yourself, they save essentially more expensive "Hamon Iberico", Who yourself buy to decorate the festive table during secular and religious holidays. Speak, from the plate of such a hamon begins the day of the king Juan Carlos. True, with the mild hand of the Crown Prince of the throne of the Asturian Felipe, perhaps not only the Spaniards will be able to learn to understand the taste "Khamon Iberico": At the International Congress on the Iberian Okorok, who passed in the city of Terwell, the Prince gave a solemn promise to delegates, which will advertise this Hamon during his trips to the countries of the world.
Why Iberico was awarded the title of Grand, and Serrano only Hidalgo? After all, one, and the second, in fact, nothing more than the damned ham made by similar technology. Differences between them only two. The first is the breed of grunting raw materials. And the second – in the composition of the feed. For production "Khamon Iberico" Exceptionally used pigs of the black Iberian breed, which are descendants of wild pigs, which in ancient times lived on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, in the forests of Sierra Moraine.
This is the only free grazing domesticated breed in Europe, part of the old ecosystem, preserved exclusively in the southwestern regions of the Iberian Peninsula. True, freedom of these animals is very relative. By law in pigs grown for production "Khamon Iberico", there must be at least 75% noble "Iberian" blood. Therefore, behind their behavior and private life are very serious. In the ears they have a kind of piercing. On one earring you can read information about the mother, on the second – about the father. Another ring is inserted into them in Piglet. Because, if this is not done, the wonderful Spanish oaks, under which the elite of the pork kingdom grazes, will die the rapid and terrible death described in the famous Bass Krylov. Pig – she is a pig, at least noble blood, even though not.
Spanish Oaks Special. They contain a large amount of carbohydrates and vegetable oils that penetrate the meat of animals. Without such feed it is impossible to grow true Iberico. The Government of Extremadura, which manages this livestock area, even published a law on pastures, which indicated that the owners of land land are not owners of the oaks growing on their territory: they do not even stop dried branches without much permission of the Special Commission.
The number of animals on pastures should not exceed 15 pigs per hectare. On libelized grazing, there are already intended year-old piglets weighing from 80 to 105 kg. Here they must rely at least 60% of their dopastic weight. If the piglet is absolutely pure blood, then its increment should be at least 75%. The period called "Acorn season", continues from October 15 to February 15. To his end of the pig is gaining from 150 to 180 kg. After which they are sent to the bottom. The only thing that can extend their short-lived, but privileged life is true, no more than a month, so this is an insufficient increase in weight.
It should be noted that this breed is the most important in the World Genetic Heritage. Her unique feature is concluded in taste and tender meat texture. No less interesting and the fact that Hamon, as physicians installed, is able to reduce blood cholesterol levels. This curious fact confirmed studies of the health of the nuns from Extremadura (area of Spain). They for several years, solely for scientific purposes, they fed on Hamon. At first, for some of them, especially for those who came from Latin America and India, an unusual food was real torture: they even tried to smear it, but then gradually got used to him and even loved. The dynamics of positive changes allowed scientists to state that Hamon is not only a delicious, but also a useful product.
For "Khamon Serrano" Pigs are grown simpler, mostly white "Docrokeyskaya" breed. They and the acorns are often not seen in the eyes, not the fact that oaks.
Tabel about ranks
The most expensive is "Hamon Iberico Beyyota". This is the back leg of a black Iberian pig, the fativities of which took place on the most expensive diet, academic. Be prepared for the fact that the price of this ham is unpleasant to surprise you. More expensive, most likely, there is nothing in the store. If the pig was fattening on a diet "Resevo", That is, on a mixture of acorns with a specially selected forage, which includes aromatic herbs, which is also very expensive, it will definitely reflect in the name of the ham – "Hamon Iberico Resevo".
"Hamon Serrano" made from white breed pig crops, regardless of whether it will be or not to fall under oaks. Only for Hamon from the White Pig at the end of the title can be added an indication of the exposure date in the cellars. Bodega – at least 12 months, Reserva – at least 9 months, Curado – up to 7 months.
All the same applies to the front limbs of pigs, but only instead of the word "Hamon" The title uses the word "Pallet" or phrase "Hamon Dellanto". For example, "Palet Iberico Beyyota". And the cheapest product in the hamona shop will be, as you have already managed to guess, "Palet Kurado" from white pig.
Birth of Delicates
The first recipe for pork legs appeared in the book "DE RE AGRICOLA", written by Caton Senior in the II century BC.NS. (This is the same Mark Portion Caton, who tirelessly called for the destruction of Carthage). In principle, the method of production with that distant pole has not changed. Yes, in fact, there was no need for this. Tolerel occurs as follows.
First, the skin and excess fat are cut from pork feet, after which they are placed in a cold room, where they are covered with plenty of salt. In this form, the ham is left for a few days, while it does not spray well. Then with meat wash off the excess salt and hang ham on drying. Moreover, this stage is a multifaceted – Hamon periodically, as drying, moves out of rooms with a lower temperature in the halls with higher. Thus, Hamon "sweating" – Excessive moisture and fat come out of it. During the entire manufacturing process, it loses about 35% of the initial humidity. And only then the ham is transported to special premises, called in the old manner "Bodegami", That is, basements, where and final maturation occurs – as a rule, months 10-12.
But it is not necessary to think that this work is not a haughty. During the entire period of drying and ripening of the ham, they are constantly checking for any unwanted neoplasms – fungi, mold, and immediately all these troubles are cut off sharply with a knife. With those volumes, what is the Hamon, it is enough.
By the way, if you drew the attention described above the technological process quite accurately reproduces the seaside change cycle, starting from winter. Previously, the peasants were scored pigs in the fall, they were hooked, and the nature was taken into account. In this order over time, one, but decisive change. The pigs began to score, having previously rested by acorns, which, as mentioned, are one of the decisive taste-forming factors in this matter. And by the way, the only factor that is not amenable to artificial reproduction. Whereas the temperature regime at the modern level of development of refrigeration equipment is not so hard to maintain artificially.
The end of the meat rinking process is confirmed by experts. They are a thin long needle made by the tradition of a bone of a cow or horse, make punctures and inhale the fragrance. As far as the objective criterion can be considered the ability of nuhats to determine the readiness of the product, it is difficult to answer, however, even if they are slightly mistaken, not scary. Hamon can be kept for two years under the ceiling of the store or restaurant. Under each of the bogs, a tiny funnel will be strengthened for continuing fracture. And before the condition will make sure. True, rarely extends so long, the demand is always.
Accounting and control
Quality control is most famous in the world. However, if the product is deserved, such control is established in cheeseing, and, in this case, in the production of ham. So, Hamon is doing throughout Spain, with the exception of the coast. "Quality mark" Hamonov called Denominacion de Origen. It is applied to every certified ham in the form of a special brand and ensures that this piece of Hamon is produced in a certain province and in compliance with the unchanged local standards. Each province has these standards, and this circumstance gives tastings to the taste of adventures, in good sense, of course.
The Spanish Ministry of Agriculture highlights the following DDEO: Cecina de Leon ("Siné de Leon"), Dehesa de Extremadura ("Dees de Estremadura"), Guijuelo ("Hihuelo"), Jamon de Huelva ("Hamon de Wuelva"), Jamon de Teruel ("Hamon de Teruel"), Jamon de Trevelez ("Hamon de Trevelies"). By the way, Hamon "Siné de Leon" It is not produced from pork, but from calf legs – such an unexpected turn of intrigue. Listed stamps are truly the highest league of the Spanish meat industry. And maybe all the world.
As it is? Here are actually two questions. First – as a Hamon to cut, if it is so huge, 5-7 kg, and at the same time on the bone? For this there are special devices, called "Hammers". They are a special wooden stand with a clip strengthened on the vertical bar. Hamon’s leg is inserted into it, hoof up. By the way, the hoofs always leave untouched to the very last piece of meat, because it is his black color – the most reliable confirmation that Hamon is made from the pig of the Iberian breed, the rest – it is bright.
When the preparation process is finished, proceed to the cutting of Hamon. First remove the outer thick layer of fat and then a thin, flexible knife from a solid ham is cut off the finest petals of ham, rotating it around his own axis. It’s easier to tell than to do. To learn this art and get the profession of Kortador, you need not only to complete special courses, but also to have talent to this case. In Spain, the masters of this level work in Spain in the field of chopping, which is even invited to tour. This, you know, the present show. In addition to jokes.
Much, of course, changed technical progress. Pretty much part of Hamon now supply without bones. Such a ham can be chopped on the elementary sliceer that is in any buffet. Moreover, despite the perturbation of supporters of authenticity, Hamon is sold in advance to sliced, and even in vacuum packaging. The main thing is not to forget to remove it from the refrigerator for 30 minutes before filing. Traditionally, this product is not stored in the refrigerator, it does not deteriorate. The second question – with what to file? First of all, he is good in itself. And no, probably, the product is more self-sufficient. Next – like any damned ham, Hamon is perfectly combined with a melon, tomato, fresh figs, pear and grapes. The sweeter of the tomato, the better goes to Hamon. In general, in Spain with Hamon experimenting as they want: the Spanish Omelet is prepared with him "Tortyl" (Do not confuse with Mexican fresh cake), add to roasted mushrooms, tung steaks turn into it. Even boiling broth made of lonely bones, and then – on it soup. Pea, of course. But only from pea "Garbanzo" (it is sold under our name "Turkish peas"). And finally, the Council, tested on personal experience: Do not warm the Hamon, add it to the dish shortly before full readiness. To reveal, he is just enough for three or four minutes. And finally, it’s good to get a dry sherry to this ham. Such a combination is recognized by classic and unsurpassed. Although wine glasses "with a tear" It will be quite appropriate.