III Pharaoh Dynasty Egypt – rulers and achievements
III dynasty – the first of the four dynasties of the ancient kingdom. As with many other epochs, the famous history of Egypt’s times of the third dynasty is presented in fairly fragmentary form, and the facts are often either assuming, or there are difficulties in dating. There is even an unequivocal opinion about the beginning and end of the rule of pharaohs of the III dynasty. According to one estimates, the period is dating from 2686 – 2575 to our era, on others – 2727 – 2655. Even about the first ruler of the dynasty there is no definite opinion. For a long time, they considered Sanakhta (Nebek), on the ABidos and Turin lists, but today many historians of Egyptologists attribute the foundation of the Dynasty Joser. This view, common today, is confirmed by Papyrus Westkar, where the predecessors of the huof are listed, the most famous modern general public under the name of Heops, and glorified by his tomb – Hoeop’s pyramid.
Joser and Imhetep
At the sunset of the early kingdom, Egypt, most likely, was in a strip of strong political instability. Presumably, the country rolled the destructive civil war. However, the Epoch II of the Dynasty is one of the most poorly studied. Information is very small and the average today’s student is unlikely to remember at least one king of that time, not looking into the search engine or encyclopedia.
Sanacht-Nebek, consider it the first pharaoh of the ancient kingdom or not, he did not leave a bright track in history and did not make a significant contribution to the sights of Egypt. The most famous Persons of the Epoch of the III dynasty – Pharaoh Joser and the famous Egyptian Imhotep, especially famous among our contemporaries on the films "Mummy" and "Mummy Returns". It was with these people that there was a coup in the cult archity, and the ancient tomb-Mastaba began to turn into a more familiar pyramid.
To see the most famous creation of Imhats, you need to go to the village of Sakkara, located south of the Egyptian capital of kilometers for thirty. In this village, named by the name of Sokara, the God of the Dead, is the very first necropolis of Memphis, the capital of the ancient kingdom. The first Mastabi of the "City of the Dead" appeared at the first dynasty, and the new "dwellings of the deceased" appeared right up to the Roman era. Among the graves, Pepha II burials, Pepi I, aunt, is allocated, but a stepped pyramid of Joser, the central construction of necropolis represent the greatest interest.
Burial complex Josra
Built more than 4500 years ago (presumably about 4600) The stepped construction is considered the first pyramid of ancient Egypt, the oldest of the preserved stone building of the world, a visual demonstration of the architectural revolution in the ancient Egyptian architecture and the historical moment in the development of all human civilization. Supervised the construction of the Supreme Priest from Heliopol, Supreme Sinovnik Josrara, an outstanding ancient Egyptian architect and healer. Imhehotep was lucky as few of the mortals. Later he was deified, and as a god of healing was revered not only in Egypt, but also in the Hellenistic world, which has absorbed a significant part of the local culture and mythology after the conquest of Egypt, King Alexander Macedonian.
Joser was a great ruler. Looking at today’s Aswan, it is difficult to believe that this area once did not belong to Egypt. However, it was at the board of Joster that the country of Pharaohs of Northern Nubia and the Sinai Peninsula with its copper and turquoise mines occurred. Although the Board of Pharaoh as a whole is considered an era of stability and lifting, judging by the stone slab found on the island of Shelel at Aswan (then Siena), the years of his power were overwhelmed with a strong hunger caused by a terrible seven-year-old drought. If you look at the Cairo Museum, pay attention to the statue of Goser. It can be found on the arrogant and proud view and the lopowim ears of the king.
But no wars, hunger and perennial droughts could not affect the majesty of the funeral complex of the monarch. The construction site with which the magnificent views of Memphis opens, is a rectangle with parties 545 and 278 meters. The platform was surrounded by a ten meters of white limestone, reinforced by defensive towers. In the walls, it was possible to count almost one and a half dozen gates, but all of them, except for some, were fake. Only some gates led to a long room, resembling a gallery. The central place of the complex is occupied by a 60-meter stepped pyramid. Presumably, Imhotep initially intended to build a typical mastague, a funeral complex, characteristic of earlier periods. However, the pharaohs have never been unnecessary modesty and to emphasize the greatness of Josher’s acts, initially Mastapo began to hold up to a 4-step pyramid, and later the number of levels increased to six. The result was the famous and understood pyramidal design. It is included in the biggest Egyptian pyramids, taking the seventh in this list.
Passage inside is closed for vacationers, but the Egyptian pound sometimes creates wonders, especially if he is not alone. For a small bribe of 50-100 pounds, security can close the eyes to the official ban. The northern side of the pyramid has a closed Joss Temple with two ritual pools, two small courtyards and two sanctuations. In the eastern part of the complex there are unusual buildings with three small yards. Such structures are no longer found anywhere in Egypt, and about their appointment can only guess. Egyptologists suggest that they were intended for some special rites, information about which was not preserved to our time.
The eastern side of the pyramid is the so-called North and South Houses. Scientists believe that these buildings are kept symbols of national shrines of two ancient parts of Egypt, whose association ended just with Joster. The North House stores the symbols of the temple in Buto, and the South – Symbols of Jeanoscapol. In addition to the pyramid of Goser, there is a "southern tomb" in the complex, characterized by smaller sizes and a tiny burial chamber.
The architectural significance of the complex, first of all, was concluded that the Pyramid of Josher became the first monumental building from the stone. Prior to this, many elements of more primitive burial mastabs did from clay. Step pyramidal design has become an intermediate link between traditional Mastaba and "real" pyramids, the most famous of which were built in Giza a little later, in the "Pharaoh-builders" era.