IITUUAN (Boxing) uprising
The history textbook is inclined to present events in a fragmentary format. Sequential paragraphs divide the historical panorama on the fragmented information, separately describing the foreign policy, the internal socio-economic situation, and the greatest achievements in the cultural sphere are designated by dry listing. As a result, several facts from our own history are remembered, often without dates and names, but with a clear understanding – who friend, and who is the enemy.
Collect separate fragments in the overall picture not easy. But it is necessary to objectively understand the logic of historical movement and subtext of daily news. Multipling scientific knowledge, developing artistic traditions, creating world religions, a man for tens of thousands of historic years has not learned to live without war. The Great Wall could be a symbol of human genius of creation in the name of the war.
Their Etoan Uprising
The end of the XIX century finally connected the planet with a single economic node. And the wings of the "Financial Butterfly" on the London Stock Exchange, gave rise to peasant unrest in the northern part of the Chinese lands. One poor province was able to draw half the world to military conflict. How is this possible? There are several reasons (external, internal, spontaneous):
1. European colonial expansion. Industrial development of the western part of the world required new markets and sources of profit. These problems were solved at the expense of "civilizational colleagues" who did not have time for technical progress. Penetration into the traditional installation of Chinese society of numerous European representatives, which treated without respect for local culture and traditions, caused deserved dislike from the indigenous population. Especially hard changes experienced residents of northern provinces, where the accelerated construction of railways and factories left a thousand people of manual labor. Roads were laid on the seeded fields, residential buildings and village cemeteries. Traditional Chinese industry collapsed, excess European, Japanese and American industrial goods.
2. The defeat of China in the first opium war 1842 g. The signing of a humiliating contract, made the imperium of the Western half colonia, unable to conduct an independent political line. The disrespectful attitude of foreigners was aggravated by indecisive internal politics. Tsysian dynasty, which has created and preserved many architectural sights of China, could not protect their people from international expansion.
3. Drought. Several faulty years in a row and flash of the cholera epidemic became the last point. In the people, all disasters were associated with the advent of "Zamar devils".
In such circumstances, numerous rebel detachments began to be formed: Imyauan, Ihhetsuan, Iminhui, Dadohaway, and others. Fighting ingenians quickly reached northeastern provinces. Council members considered themselves fair wars and sacred fighters. All members of the detachment united hatred for foreigners.
Soon "IIETUUAN" became a common name for the whole liberation movement. Its rows quickly were replenished with tens of thousands of the poorest peasants, artisans, demobilized soldiers, as well as women and adolescents. People’s militia had its own charter, in which the norms of proper behavior for the real IITUUAN were spelled out. Many fighters observed specific religious and mystical rituals. The main goals of the participants of the uprising were adjusted throughout the war, but the majority led to three main tasks:
1. Save the country from European invaders.
2. Expel or destroy all inners, including chinese-Christian.
3. Low down of the TSY Dynasty.
The literal translation of the detachment of honesty and justice – IITUAN – detachment and fist. The difficulties of translation transformed the word "fist" in "Boxing", which gave them to the second name – "Boxing".
The failure of the reforms of Emperor Guanshuya, gave rise to discontent in the ruling circles, which supported the widowing Empress of Chizy. Today, this name is known, thanks to her magnificent residence – the summer palace, built long before the events described, but the flourishing of his landscape architecture is obliged to.
Main events 1897-1902.
– November 1897. On the ground begins the clashes of displeased residents with the Chinese army and foreign troops, which ruin the population, sometimes devastating whole provinces.
– June 1898. Officials on the ground no longer cope with the scale of the situation. The whole north of the country came out of control.
– November 2, 1899. The leader of the movement of themeuan called the whole country to fight the occupiers and the Qing dynasty. This day is considered to be the beginning of the Etoeuan uprising. The number of freedom fighters has reached about 100,000 people.
– Winter 1900. The scale of movement and uncertainty in power, forced diplomats and numerous missionaries to ask for military reinforcement.
– May 1900. Ichoani burned several buildings belonging to the Russian Orthodox Mission. In response to anti-Christian actions, the Russian Empire strengthens its military presence in China.
– June 1900. Theiyuanians entered Beijing. Relaxing over foreign invaders, supported Chinese army. Western press wrote for a long time about the inhuman and unfortunate killings of peaceful Christians.
– Night June 23, 1900 – "Warfolomeev night in Beijing".
– August 1900. Coalition troops took Beijing. The largest palace complex in the world – the Forbidden City – became a victim of a boxing uprising. In addition to countless human victims, the artistic legacy of world importance suffered.
– September 7, 1901. Signing the Boxer Protocol between the Chinese Government and 11 countries.
– December 1901. The Russian army destroyed the remnants of the "honesty and justice" detachment in Manchuria, which is considered the end of the folk resistance.
Empress Chizye left the capital on the eve of the assault on the city of Si’an, better known as the burial place of the great emperor Shihuandi and his unsurpassed terracotta army. Following the government, the army retreated, passing Beijing without a fight.
The Etoeuan uprising was suppressed, the life of the Chinese people deteriorated significantly. The Middle Empire was obliged to pay the Contribution, execute all the rebels and set a number of military restrictions. Even before the conclusion of a peace treaty, discords began in an allied camp, which created prerequisites for the Russian-Japanese war 1904.
The traditional closeness of Eastern society, careful attitude towards its cultural heritage, incomparable hardworking helped to preserve the Great China. The unique country existing since the time of the ancient world was able to take the leading position in the age of high technologies, thanks to his wisdom.
After conducting a number of military reforms and changes in education, the Great Eastern Empire was able to defeat the enemy and restore its position in the region. The thousand-year history of China knew a lot of invaders and wars, but always restored because he knew how to follow the flight butterfly.