Imhotep – Great Architect, Healer and Priest
In Persia was Avicenna. In medieval Europe – Leonardo da Vinci. In Russia – Mikhail Lomonosov. Such people in the history of humanity are easy to recalculate on the fingers. They appear at the turning point of history, during the years of a particularly bright rise of states and the formation of nations, and make the picture of the world to a more solid and clear. I did not exception and Egypt, where during the unification of the Upper and Lower Egypt with Pharaoh Josera fully appeared amazing talents of imhatop. More precisely, Imhotep was the first in the list of multifaceted geniuses, paid humanity to their presence on sinful land.
For a long time, the history of Egypt was replenished with new and new testimonies of bright talents Imhemepa (Greek.: Imvetes, Egypt., ang. trance.: jy-m-htt, which means "coming in the world"). At first, historians doubted the reality of his existence, so bright and diverse were the numerous talents and the advantages of the first of the famous scientists, architects and healers. At the time of Immechapa called the Egyptian "Leonardo da Vinci", but Leonardo was only the "homouniversalis", "universal man" and genius. Imhotep became the deity officially recognized by the God of Healing.
Looking at the tourist booklets of the Colossus Memnon, the Great Pyramids or the Temples of the Luxor, we rarely think about the architects that prevail unique buildings. Most often the names of the architects are unknown even by scientists. Imhotep – one of the few exceptions. One of the main architectural creations of "Geniya Deity" can be seen in the village of Saccary, located near the Egyptian capital. The name of the village is not for nothing that the name of the God of the Dead Socar is consonant, because it is here that the most ancient necropolis of the capital of the ancient kingdom with the oldest pyramid of Josher, built under the leadership of Imhemepa. The first structure from the group of famous buildings appeared here, subsequently mentioned the great Egyptian pyramids.
Samples of earlier architecture related to the days of the second and first dynasties can be seen next to the pyramid of Goser, the first large famous mankind of a stone building. More ancient tips are more often called the Arab word "Mastaba", which is translated as "bench". The original name "Per-Jet" means "Eternal House" or "House for Eternity". In some way, Mastaba is "underground". The design is folded from raw bricks or wooden supports, covered with racking. The facades were made either of the dashest stone, or from raw bricks. The burial chamber was in the underground part of the tomb, at the top only the chapel was placed with the statue of the deceased, representing the "reserve" abode of the soul of the deceased.
The six-speed Pyramid of Joster initially, apparently, was planned as a few modernized Mastaba. Then, as historians suggest, additional levels appeared, which turned the structure into a stepped pyramid. The steps were also a symbol-mythological role – they were destined to become a staircase for heaven for the soul of Pharaoh. Amazing design has common features with Mastabami and later pyramids, but at the same time he is very different from those and from others. In an unusual building there is a huge mine, on top of a closed dome and accommodating a very large granite sarcophage, installed on a poorly preserved marble building of an unknown destination.
Summarizing the architectural achievements of imhatop, not enough to mention the invention of the pyramids and the formation of the basic traditions of the cult architecture of the ancient kingdom. It is worth noting that the Edfu Temple, the second in size after the Karnakian ancient Egyptian temple, was also allegedly erected under the leadership of Imhemepa. The invention of columns in architecture also attribute to him.
In the New York Academy of Medicine, you can see fragments of the famous "Papyrus Edwin Smith", which is considered the most important medical text of Ancient Egypt and one of the most ancient samples of medical literature. Imhotep is considered the first author of the text of the papyrus and the founder of Egyptian medicine. The history of a unique papyrus shows how knowledge about the past depends on the will of the case.
Edwin Smith acquired Papyrus at the Arab merchant Mustafa Aga in Luxor in 1862. In 1906, Smith died, and his daughter gave an unknown document to the New York historical society. In 1930, James Brasted translated 22 pages of the ancient Egyptian text. In 1938, the document fell into the Brooklyn Museum, and in 1948 – to the New York Academy of Medicine. In the same year, Papirus Edwin Smith for the first time demonstrated to the public in the New York Metropolitan Museum, and in 2005 there was a new, more accurate translation of the historical document. 86 years old Papyrus "walked" from the Luxor merchant to people, and if not the daughter of Smith, a unique certificate of the achievements of ancient Egyptian medicine could remain unknown.
Imhotep becomes God
Homo Universalis Ancient Kingdom reached unprecedented for a simple man heights. He was almost a country prime minister, and a clergy in the main cult center of the state, and the architect number one, and the founder of medicine, and at the same time the leading healer. If you go to the Cairo Museum, you can see on the statue of the king’s mention of Imhats – a unique case when the court official is mentioned on the statue of Pharaoh. But Imhotep managed to become big, hitting the ancient Egyptian mythology, and then in the beliefs of the Greeks and Romans.
Over time, the famous Egyptian began to be considered the son of Goddess Sahmet and God of Ptah, the heavenly patron of artisans. In honor of the degenidant, the sanctuary was erected in Sakkar and Karnak. By the way, the sights of Egypt were replenished in 2006 by a new facility – Imhatop Museum on the territory of the oldest necropolis of Saccary. Sakkar temple was called Askeyion. Similar temples, asclepions, later began to build Greeks, who took imhatop as an image of their god of healing asklepia and called their priests asklepiads. In the Roman mythology of Asclepius turned into a god of the Eskulap. This word is widely used to this day as a synonym for the word "doctor".