In search of immortality: three hundred years of art in the country Pyramids.
On December 6, 1912, the head of the German expedition in the city of Achettone Ludwig Borhardt was suddenly asked to urgently come into a small room, which was once part of an extensive workshop "the boss of the head of the sculptor of Tutmos". Twenty centimeters from the eastern wall of the room made of brick dust, a part of the sculpture was set up – a piece of painted in the body color The nape depicted along the neck of the red ribbons. All tools were postponed, and further work was done only by their hands. The blue headdress appeared. It became clear that this is a bust of a queen in full size. Finally, it was raised – not only almost a whole, but also completely striking beauty! In front of the researchers, overcoming space in three thousand three hundred years, appeared "Developing. Voice sweet, with your own hands beautiful with Sistra" Queen Nefertiti. When, after midnight, Borhardt filled the diary of this exceptional day and reached the bust of the queen, he could only record the following: "Describe aimlessly!". Publishing this masterpiece after eleven years, Borhardt says: "I could write the same thing today, because I am convinced that my words can not transfer the impression of this monument".
Egyptian art is extremely important for its emotional impact. Time, category of so-conditional in antiquity, retreats today at the time of contact with the creation of an artist intended for eternal existence. It does not matter that this is a giant conquering colonnade of the Amon-ra church in Luxor or full grace and grace of the Statuette of the Priestess of the Raruna from GMII. A.WITH. Pushkin, bringing the ideal beauty from the banks of the Nile in the Study of the Winter Moscow Day.
Heroglyphs, grand temples and graded monuments of ancient Egypt are given in the amazement of a modern man, who is not so easy to understand their meaning and meaning, often notponed with even the ancient Greeks, standing in time, much closer to the Egyptians, but, despite this, who considered the great pyramids of Giza just ridiculous and oppressive demonstration of royal vanity. In fact, monuments not only resurrect for us for us greatness; This is a peculiar embodiment of the image of thoughts and actions – so strange and at the same time so close to us.
What does not fit into the framework of human consciousness transmitted through several different complementary concepts that only in aggregate can reflect the true essence of the phenomenon. Difficult, deep, littered with golden stars, this is the infinite ocean, and the roof, and the divine celestial cow and the body of the goddess of the Nut, bending over her spouse Gebom – the Deity of the Earth. At the same time, any traditional symbol is justified and all of them together, despite the apparent nursing, give the key, the possibility of admission to the world of the gods. The difference of approaches is expressed in the dualism of thinking, which reduces the whole to unity and the struggle of two principles, which are reflected in the dual character of the royal power, in the confrontation of Kemmet – Black, which gives life to people and shoots of Egypt’s land and is delay – the red sands of the desert killing their despair: the sun dies and born on their endless horizon, their infinity is a refuge of death and, at the same time, invisible revival. The eternal, inhabited mysterious, immersed in the dream of creatures, the Ocean NUN, surrounding at the time of the creation of the Universe of the original hill of the Earth Ben-Ben – the place of birth of the solar deity, on Earth takes the form of the seas, fills the heavenly arch, poured the flood of Hapi – Nile, feeds the river bed By the afterlime kingdom, according to which every night I am in the West to the East, the God of the Sun of RA, shifting evil, submitting to Nechh – the infinite round of life.
Between the subject and its definition there is an unbreakable relationship. Thus, the word embodies objects and phenomena; Honey Neutcher – "Divine words" – The hieroglyphic system of the letter, created by God, composed of pictures, drawn from nature, was a reflection of reality. The image of a living being, necessarily accompanied by his name, becomes like dual. Desire to conclude a reality in the framework of sustainable verbal and graphic symbols, in order to preserve it with one of the highest forms of magic – this is the main feature of the ancient Egyptian culture.
The symbolism typology of ancient Egyptian art is very extensive: it is a symbolism of form and size, location and material, colors and numbers, hieroglyphic and gesture. Interpret often an ambivalent symbol, trying to achieve the most correct result – the task of paramount importance and tremendous complexity. Sometimes a graphic symbol has a living, anthropomorphic form: so having hands a symbol of life anch carries a sacred fringe behind the king, and the Jed Post, who personifies the God of Osiris and carrying the importance of stability and strength, is equipped with eyes and supports the sun disk in the palms.
In an effort to comprehend eternity, Egyptian art does not stop at the transient. The master shows not a change in the image, but its perfect shape, preserves not the reality itself, but its idealized reflection. The principle of the image of the KA and HemSut-Spiritual Doubles of all the events was based on art throughout all the eras of the existence of ancient Egyptian civilization – early (30-28 centuries. to N.NS.), Ancient (28-23 centuries. to N.NS.), Average (21-18 centuries. to N.NS.) and new (16-11 centuries. to N.NS.) kingdoms.
Submitting the idea of support, deification and power of the royal power, the artist symbolically interpreted the image of the king as "Bull etching", soaring in the skies of the falcon, represented "living God" in the form of a statue of the Sphinx, which the Egyptians were called Shespan – "Image of alive". Choir, the Pharaoh and the patron sieve of the royal power in the form of a falcon, sitting on the back of the throne of the famous statue of King Hafra from Giza (26 V. to N.NS.) and stretches the wings, protecting the head of your incarnation. The side of the throne is traditionally depicts the sign of Shem Taui – the interlaced lotus and papyrus stems, symbolizing the combined top and bottom Egypt. The throne itself was the emblem of the goddess Isis: Thus, everyone embodied in stone the king once again likes the chorus – the Divine Infant, sitting on his knees of her bogin. The deceased king, depicted in the form of mummy, is identified with Osiris – the father of Choir, his wife Isisida. Anthropomorphic sarcophag of Pharaoh, starting from 17 in. to N.NS. covered by the ornament of Rishi – images of feather of the winged goddesses of the guardians of the deceased Isis and the oil. At the same time, feathers approached the sarcophag to Ba – "Soul" The most deceased depicted in the form of a bird. Growing from the sands of the desert of a pyramid or a secret rock tomb became the last shelter of the rulers.
Sacralization of culture was so great that many sacred plots can be found both inside the temple or tombs and simply in the household scene: in the form of a born out lotus flower of the Sun, both a posthumous gold pendant Ramses II and a simple copper mirror of the artisan wife from Deir El – Singo. In the tomb of the princess Sat-Hathor-Jünet, the middle kingdom era was discovered a mirror with a handle in the form of head Hathor, since this goddess patronized beauty, joy, merry, and also "made all the secrets of the female heart".
Symbolic model of space, "house of God" There was a temple on Earth. This model did not simply reflect all the main aspects of the microcosm, but was an active organism that supports the Maat – the great principle of universal harmony, personified in the image of the winning goddess – the daughter of the Sun and its attribute – Ostrich Feather. By the time of the new kingdom there is a canonical system for building a temple complex.
Temple territory surrounded by a special low wall of the Doperos, folded from raw bricks. The temple itself, erected from the stone, consisted of several dual towers – pylons, open (peristile) and indoor (hypostyle) columns and halls built on a single direct, completed sanctuary. The roof of the temple, who was the sky of this microcosm, was traditionally decorated with golden stars and figures of flying Korshunov, compressing in the shan rings paws – eternity symbols. Floors, respectively, were considered as an elevated land hill. Grand colonnads of yards and halls imitated the primordial thickets of reeds in which the solar deity was once born. Russian traveler A.WITH.Norov admired created in 14-13 centuries. to N.NS. the hypostyl hall of the temple of Amon in the carnac "An immense set of pillars, which the creation exceeds the forces of the people, the most powerful. Everyone you have seen to the buildings of the building, although you caught the entire globe, toys before this pussy! This forest of columns, the magnitude of the unimaginable and where? Inside the building, plunges you into deep thoughtfulness. " The architecture was throughout the existence of ancient Egyptian civilization by the leading type of art, which makes up a sculpture, relief and painting. Independent unity.
All elements of the temple, one way or another, were symbolically connected with elements of the harmonious device of the Universe. Input pylon symbolized ahet – "skyline of heaven", Between the hills of which "Rates Ra". In the temple of the choir in Edfu, erected at Ptolemy, the Tower of Pilon was called "Isis and oil lifting the God of the Sun, which shines on the horizon". On the door cornice of Pilon, a winged solar disk – the embodiment of the Choir of Behwetsky, the Divine, who attacked the rebel enemies of. The long way of the course of the priests imitated the movement of the solar area from the pilon, often focused on the east through the courtyards and halls to the West, where the holy holy hid in the dark.
Obeliski, located on both sides of the entrance to the temple also had a solaric symbolism; They are sometimes dedicated to the morning and evening manifestations of the sun and covered with gold and electron. "And you who, after many years, will see these monuments, – says his inscription on the erection of Obeliskov Tsarina Khatsepsut in 16 in. to N.NS., – And it will talk about what I did, you say: "We do not know how they could do it; How could they pour a whole mountain of gold, as if it was common. " To don the obeliski, I drew gold with measures. When you hear about it, do not say that it is a boar, but say: how it looks like it is on Her Majesty Hatshepsut, as worthy of her father, God Amon!"
By erecting and expanding the temples, Pharaoh not only supported Maat, but also contributed to the prosperity of the country, made the benefit given by God in exchange for monuments dedicated to him. "My Son is my beloved, the choir, delisting in the phi, – the god of the Amon to Tagenmos III in the text of the famous anthem of the anthem of Victory from Karnaca, – Yes, you live forever, the executing wishes of my. Whether you erected with our own, forever, the abode is extensive for the same, great gates. Celebrates the magnificence of her amon-ra. Monuments, you are erected, by the will of my grandfather of the conquered by the Donyn kings. You satisfied me, and I took you to the throne of the choir for millions of years, and you will always rule alive!"
Egyptian art, abandoning the prospects, subordinates the reality symbolism symbolism. So, beating on the reliefs of enemies, the king was always depicted in tens of times higher than his subordinates, and a simple mortal convulsion was inclined before the twenty-meter colossos of Ramses II at the entrance to his rocky temple in Abu Simbel. In some cases, it has a specific religious subtext to increase the size of the object. "I know these fields of reeds belonging to RA, "says the dead of the Dead the Dead 109, – the height of the wheat there – five elbows, her ear in two elbows and her stem in three elbows. Spirits growing at nine elbows everyone climbs her. " In the famous magnificent wall paintings of the tomb of the SENDZHEM in the philas, the deceased and his wife of the Eyeferti are depicted by the buckle of fertile paradise with a height of themselves. Grandism was often a companion of divinity. So, Amenhotep III reported on his buildings in the temple of Amon in Luxor: "His pylons reach heaven, his flagpoles stretch to the stars. When people see it, they will praise His Majesty".
The Egyptians represented their country to the center of the world, which developed in two main areas: East – West, on which the way of solar food and south – north, direction of water flow. From the location of the temple complex or workshop, where the amulet was made, it was dependent. Egyptians attached particular importance to several special regions of their country. So, in the era of the ancient kingdom of royal funeral processions, the largest relault religious centers were visited – SAIS and Heliopol.
With the growing popularity of the Cult of Osiris in the middle kingdom of the funeral journey to "Residents of the Divine" began to take place in the city of Abidos, who had epithet – "Great land". Here, many Egyptian kings built magnificent temples, an annual festival was held, private individuals came here to worship God; The journey of the deceased on the Floor in Abidos was often portrayed on the walls of the tomb of the new kingdom. ESNA, the place of honoring God-Creator Khnum, was called "Divine Hall, Top, Raised from Nuna". GOD NILA HAPPIA DOES IN THE CABERS Near the first threshold – the legendary place where the flood began; Many other deities also contacted specific geographic locations. In the era of the middle kingdom, visual sources appear, telling about the topography of the afterlife. They were supplemented in the new kingdom of famous texts of the Book of the Dead, Amdaouth, Books of the Gate, Breath Books, Books Day and Night, Books Caves, which are even more famous, thanks to excellent vignettes, accompanying text on papyrus and exquisite painted reliefs, complementing hieroglyphic signs on the walls royal tombs in the valleys of the kings and queens in the philas.
Unsuburning significance of the material used in the work of the Egyptian artist. Gold, "flesh of the Gods", The sun and goddess Iside and Hathor were dedicated to – "gold". Bia-En-Pet, "Metal skies" – Meteorite iron was emphasized by sacral functions; It was from the iron that the tools were carried out for the ceremony of tuning the mouth, the main value of which was to like the deceased deity. Loving the Egyptian jewelers lazuli, brought from the distant Badakhshan, was revered as the hair of the gods; Turquoise, mined in Sinai, was dedicated to Hathor as mistress of this place. The fertile Nielsky Il went on the manufacture of raw bricks, but at the same time, it is from the god-gonchar’s god-gonchar who creates a man and his ka, and, settling in the fields, he gives life grain, becoming the body of the Goddess Isis, fertilized by the waters of Osiris-Nile.
Like the material, the color attached great importance. Cheager, red, color of fire and blood belonged to the network, the killer of Osiris. This color was written by the scribe names of dangerous spirits and noted unfortunate days in the calendar. Hesbedzh, blue, likeness of the endless sky and water of the Ocean Nuna, reminded of the spills of the Nile and was dedicated to the God of Wisdom Toyu. Hennet, yellow, the color of the sun and rampant gold was used by the artist for the figures of the gods in the pains of the tomb. Uadzh, green, symbolized the life itself, immortality; Green as a sign of this, the hieroglyphs of texts of the pyramids were discharged – religious properties that cover the walls of the funeral chambers of the tomb of the kings V and Vi of the dynasties of the ancient kingdom. Hedge, white, revered as an element of ritual purity, was a color of hedge – white crown of the Upper Egypt. And finally, who, black, along with green, the color of the skin of Osiris, the embodiment of fertility and endless generosity of the Egyptian land.
"Art does not know the limit. Can the artist achieve the vertices of skill?", – asked in his famous teaching sage Ptakhhotep at 25 in. to N.NS. Today, after a millennium, before the divine smile embodied in the gold smile, a young Tutankhamon and a simple acrossone with the image of an acrobatki, we give an affirmative answer.
Stopping in admiration for the works of the ancient Egyptian art, it is worth thinking about the genius of artists, their created. Time spared many names and can not be remembered by imhatop, the architect of the Pyramid of Josrah in Sakkara, Hemius, erected the Great "Hour horizon" In Giza, Senenmouth, the builder of the terraced temple of Hatshepsut in Deir El Bakhry, Amenhotep Son Hapu, Creator of the Temple of Amon in Luxor and Colossi "Memnon" – AmenHotep III, Penra, under the guidance of which the upwards of Ramsseum. Some of them, like Imhotep, were deified after death, others completed their days in complete oblivion. But all of them are alive in their immortal creations who won century. "I was looking for what was useful – in his cellular inscription inhen, the founder of the Canon of the Egyptian church of the new kingdom, – my head awake, looking for useful. These were the works like which was not made since the times of ancestors. What I was destined to create was great. I was looking for descendants, it was the skill of my heart. I will praise for knowing my coming years to those who will follow what I did".