In the country of antipodov

So it turned out that Australia we present our country by tradition "Antipodes". You can not remember how the capital of this state is called, which sea-oceans it is washed, but everyone has learned since childhood that this land is located somewhere "at the bottom" Globe. And therefore, in relation to us, Australians go up legs. She is generally full of paradoxes, this Australia. Distant and mysterious, low-cost and unknown. In short, Terra Incognita.

Start with the fact that Australia is the world’s only state in the world engaged in the territory of the whole continent. Here is his passport details: in addition to the Australian mainland, it includes the island of Tasmania and many small islands. The territory is 7.7 million square kilometers, the length of the continent from the north to the south is over 3200 kilometers, from the west to the East – over 4 thousand. Population – more than 15 million people. Capital – Canberra (more than 250 thousand inhabitants).

And with a personal acquaintance, judging by itself, Australia is primarily affecting the measured and, if you can put it, good-natured the course of life. And yet the fact that everything is the opposite. When in Russia Winter, in Australia Summer. When you go the road, you look first right, and not to the left.

And where else to see the meeting of the new year on the beach, in bathing suits? And it happens on the same time as we. Where else to go if there is a year round season – summer? But Santa Claus – a copy of ours. With the only difference that he wanders in his dedmorosovskaya coat barefoot in the sand, sometimes resting in a hammock with a glass of champagne. And then again "goes to nation", entertains according to official duties. Maybe on water skiing with a breeze. And some in their red fur coats and with a beard fly on paraglids.

There are in Australia and such a New Year’s tradition, which everyone loves. It is called Kissing Time – "Time kisses". All – familiar and unfamiliar kissing, what else piquant.

Australians usually do not miss the case to remind the interlocutor that 33 Great Britain can accommodate in their countries. If your hobby is diving, then you expect a big barrier reef. If surfing is a golden shore. And if the adventures are sitting, meetings with aborigines, rolling crocodiles, jungle and waterfalls – take a course on Darwin and Kakada Park.

The highest chic – originate from the convicts

But first useful to scroll through the story page. The first Europeans who have opened at the beginning of the 17th century this continent were the Dutch navigaters Villem Yant (1605) and Abel Tasman (1642th), who called him New Holland. Australia, which means Southern Earth, the mainland became known only at the beginning of the XIX century after him in 1770 opened James Cook again, and later joined the English crown.

Having joined the Australian land, said Yanz hurried from there to get out of the way and recorded in the diary: "There is nothing good in this country cursed". Few arrows of adventures that landed there led to the despondency of dry lands, "Cunning and ferocity of the natives" and animals looked so strange, "as if God began to work on them, and never finished".

Eucalyptus forests were lifeless, the flowers did not smell, and the birds did not sing. Do you have to be surprised that the first researchers called Australia "Country of nightmares and despair". There was no silver, nor gold, nor spices. James Cook did not even discovered fresh water and at first decided that the mainland was not suitable at all for life. Therefore, the British decided to send there, away from the metropolis, criminals-cortex.

Colonization of Australia since it began that in January 1788 the first transport of exile from Britain arrived in January 1788. Sydney’s factory got the name. Among 700 pioneers there were 500 men and 200 women convicted of murders, robbery, smuggling, prostitution and other acts. Behind them followed tens of thousands of other poor people, which became the true founders of the new country.

The law on the expulsion of criminals acted until 1840, and by that time, many of the references found in Australia death from unbearable labor in Australia, the calculation of thickets under the farms and laying the foundations of new cities. However, such a fate suffered not all. Some gained freedom, managed to learn and even succeed. Less successful remained at the position of half-workers in the service of voluntary immigrants, which began to arrive here after the ships with the convicts.

Australia – Federal State as part of the British Commonwealth. According to the 1901 Constitution, the Australian Union is held in the past English colonies, and now the states of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, Northern Territory and Tasmania.

In 1931, in the Westminster Statute, Australia received complete independence from the metropolis in external and internal affairs. Nevertheless, today the nominal head of the country is the British Queen, which is the Governor-General, appointed on the recommendation of the Australian Government. Supreme Legislative Body – Federal Parliament, consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives.

A hundred years ago, Australians were inclined to consider themselves displaced British. In conversations, they still can call England "house". However, the former relations lost their importance. In Australia, sliced ​​from England during the Second World War, national self-awareness began to develop: the desire for independence took the top.

Curious phenomenon: a sign of noble origin here is a pedigree, leaving roots to the convicts. Melbourne Genealogical Society even founded something like a club called "Descendants of a cautious". The number of its members reaches 2500 people. Thanks to the strict accounting system operating in England in the XVIII century, establish relationship with the convicts is easy. Before sending to Australia, their names were entered into church books. In addition, the lists of passengers, ringing shackles were carefully filled on ships.

There is such an anecdote, and maybe. Tourist in the Australian Embassy ask: "You have a criminal record?" He in response: "And what, to obtain an Australian visa, the conviction is still needed?"

About 70 percent of Australians live now in cities with a population of over one hundred thousand people. A little more than 200 years have passed, and former reference settlements Melbourne and Sydney entered the top five most beautiful cities in the world.

"White Acacia Flowers Emigration"

The overwhelming predominance of the British among other immigrants lasted more than a century. The situation began to change after 1945, marked by the largest influx of immigrants from a ruined Europe and Asia in the history of Australia. For the period between the end of the World War II and the December 1968 decabra, 4.5 million people arrived in the country, of which there were only 41 percent for the share of immigrants from the British Islands. The remaining 2.7 million immigrants are Italians, Greeks, Lebanese, Spaniards, Portuguese, Maltese, Dutch, Scandinavians, Germans, Turks, Chinese, Philipins, Malayse, Koreans. Now every fifth resident of the country – post-war immigrant.

Especially should be said about "Russian wave", a more precisely, about "waves". The first was the Russians who fled to China and Japan during the revolution years and moved to Australia in the period between world wars. Then followed the complex "Second wave" – post-war. It includes the so-called "Displaced persons" from Germany, Austria and Italy – former prisoners of war, people who were hijacked for forced work that did not want to return to the USSR.

At the same time, some of those who collaborate with the occupational authorities on the territories captured by the fascists were also in Australia. NS "Second wave" usually ranked those who have arrived from Manchuria’s 50–60. This is the so-called "Harbin Emigration" – Mostly descendants of the employees of the CERV, who lived in China. Beijing did not want to have on a strategically important area of ​​foreigners, and the Russians themselves were alarmed – felt the danger of the Maoist "cultural revolution".

Harbinth flow amounted to different estimates, from 7 to 12 thousand people. It is believed that they mostly retained national traditions and make up the backbone of the community of ethnic Russians. In most major cities of Australia you will surely find "Russian house" – Local community club. 32 comments of the Russian Orthodox Church abroad are scattered around the country, and in 1989, and Moscow Patriarchate sanctified two new temples in Sydney and Melbourne. Among the elderly many supporters "Unified and indivisible Russia", close to our spirit "Eurasians". Their views basically reflect the largest Russian newspaper Australia – "Union".

Representatives "Third waves", As a rule, – supporters of liberal-democratic values. Their communication resembles the close heart of the Russian intellectual midnight tea drinking in the kitchen and Sunday departures for the Moscow region. If you consider the former Soviet Union of our common homeland, then the number of compatriots in Australia will increase significantly.

During the collapse of the Soviet Union, 35 thousand Ukrainians who constitute a cohesive community already lived here. Less was Belarusians – 10 thousand. The Baltic communities are strong here, of which in the early 1990s, the most numerous was Latvian – 19 thousand people. Lithuanians numbered 14 thousand, Estonians – 9 thousand. Representatives of all three peoples are included in the United Baltic Committee – the Union of Baltic Patriots of Australia. This organization exhibits great political activity and supports close contacts with the authorities in Riga, Vilnius and Tallinn.

Mass post-war immigration – For Australia, the phenomenon is unprecedented. For Australians of English origin it has become a real revolution. Special wonder there were immigrants from Lebanon, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, who changed the nature of the Australian Society. Know the top three biggest greek cities? The first two – Athens and Fessonalki. And the third? Right, Melbourne.

The most friendly city in the world

I will give the latest information: According to the results of a survey conducted by the American Travel Journal Conde Nast Travel, Sydney is recognized as the best tourist destination in the world. Under the terms of the competition, which is held since 1988, the survey participants assessed the level of comfort and services, entertainment, hospitality and uniqueness of nature. This year, for all these indicators, the former religious settlement – Sydney, ahead of such recognized centers for attracting tourists, like Florence, San Francisco and Bangkok. I especially note that the Australian metropolis was recognized "The most friendly city". If you are not yet ripe to immediately go to this address, I propose to commit a correspondence walk.

It is best to fly in Sydney by plane, and from the airport to the city center Easy to fly by bus. He will deliver travelers to Alfred Street, right in the Sydney Harbor. On the left – the famous suspension bridge, a miracle of the first half of the twentieth century, on the right – the huge sink of the Sydney opera. Without reaching the bridge, on the left, next to the historic building of the marine station, – an observation deck from which you can make excellent pictures of the opera theater and a group of skyscrapers, close to the harbor. Landscape complements running at an altitude of the 6–7th floor, highway "Kakhil Expressey" and passing the railway.

The building of the Sydney Opera is known worldwide. Against the background of the city skyscrapers it looks in a wonderful stone flower. Other compare it with giant sinks or swallow winds by sails. Analogies are justified: this kind of building is located on the cape cutting into the Bay of Port Jackson. When on Sunday days, sea smoothly animated with countless yachts, you begin to understand where the creator of the opera is impassion fantasy – Danish architect th.Uston.

The famous silhouette will find hardly on every postcard for tourists: the opera house turned into a business card not only the city, but also of the whole Australia. Meanwhile, the project, which risen literally in front of her eyes (in the end, the cost reached 102 million dollars), caused a stormy debate. The author, offended by criticism and endless amendments, even left the country before his creation 15 years after the start of construction rose in all its glory on the rocky Cape Benelong.

It is impossible to overestimate the significance of this cultural center in the life of Sydney. Under the same roof, the opera house was fitted with 1550 seats and a concert hall for 2700. For theatrical performances allocated "Small scene" – Another room for 550 seats. There is room and for films for 420 viewers. You can use the recording studio, library, conduct exhibitions and solemn techniques. Complex that is visited annually about one and a half million people, complement art mini salons, cafes and restaurants.

But there is a disturbing note. Recently, increasingly talking about the danger, hung over the Sydney Opera. The first warning was obtained in early 1986, when a piece of the tile was broken from the roof and crashed into the glass. Began to understand. And with horror it was established that the building on the verge of decline: the architectural masterpiece began to explode a malignant tumor called "Cancer concrete". We remembered the warnings of skeptics who claimed that concrete arches covers are able to reliably serve not twenty years, as suppliers promised, and at best – twice smaller.

Mistaken those and others. But this does not change. Million white tiles, which are lined with roof and walls, fragile and require delicate circulation. And they have to deal with constant overheating and salted sea air.

Even before the first signs of trouble in the late 1980s, the city authorities laid 58 million dollars to the 6-year-old opera theater recovery program. Already then the voices were heard that these funds were not enough for maintaining the creation of Upon. Now it became clear: these needs will have to spend annually from 8 to 10 million dollars.

In the country of antipodov

But continue the walk. Our way – in Pitt Street to the television, also the attraction of Sydney. Here is also placed another, no less interesting: on the corner of the market Street Waiting for the station Monorail road, allowing to make a ring trading of the exhibition center and the Maritime Museum. Monorails sometimes run through the buildings, hangs over water or above the sidewalk. It makes the road compact that occupies little place in the city movement. The entire route will take less than half an hour, but during this time you can see a lot.

Returning to the Street Market, we will turn to the main street of the city – George Street, starting her inspection from a huge "Queen Victoria Bilding" – Department Store from red stone built in colonial style. And if you move to the north, back to the harbor, we will fall into the historical district "Rocks" – place where Sydney begins. There are many private restaurants and bars here, and from here you can climb the famous Sydney Bridge (Harbor Bridge). By the way, the seeds are homemade to his home "Clothes hanger". If you look closely, the image will be accurate. Steel, longer than a thousand meters construction was built in 1932, in the height of the economic crisis. From saving it was painted in mouse color, noble and at the same time the least brand.

Having drove or fucked by the bridge through the Sydney Bay, we will fall on a picturesque coast, where there are also many points for shooting. Further, the route will be held through the underwater tunnel laid at a depth of 21 meters. Then the center of the nightlife of the city – Kings Cross and the oldest in Australia Hyde Park. In order not to overwork, completed the excursion at the monument to James Cube. From here you can make a cruise on the catamaran on the bay of the port Jackson.

Sydney – a huge city: he is four times more Moscow with a population of only 4 million people. In the city, the mass of interesting cultural objects. Everything is not possible to get around. But if there is time, it is worth looking into the National Maritime Museum, where everything is collected about the sea and plaques – from the Aboriginal boats to battleships and surfboards.

By the way, about the features of Sydney surfing. Waves here are luxurious, but the vigilance can not lose. Not only need to follow, whether the shark is moving to you. An even more gloomy reputation enjoys a Sydney Spider – a variety of black spider. It dwells in a radius of 160 kilometers around Sydney and is especially common in the city bay, having a good one to go on the shallows under the stones and logs, which. The poison of the Mochnogo Robber is mortal for people and almost harmless to mice and insects. Fortunately, in the early 1980s, many Australian newspapers reported that Melbourne immunologist with.Sareland and his colleagues received and successfully experienced monkeys vaccine against the Terrible Killer.

Why astralia did not become second America

Over the years of its relatively short history, Australia has changed so much that today it is difficult to give a clear definition of the very concept "Australian". The depth of these changes can be judged at least because in the telephone directory of Sydney Vietnamese surname Nguyen occurs more often than Johnson.

Before the case was easier. Word "Australian" Basically, it was synonymous with all Anglo-Celtic. Almost all citizens had white skin color and similar tastes. Typical Australians called Donald Bredman or Frank Sedzhmen. They all ate meat with vegetables and played cricket or tennis. It was a society about which many people now respond as a boring, cut off from the rest of the world, devoid of dynamicity, and also racist.

However, with an average population density, equal to about one person per square kilometer, it was impossible to afford to overlap foreign to country. From those who came here, at first it was necessary for them to be white and good by the British. However, everything changed in 1970, when the Labor Party came to power, which decided to end the policy "White Australia" and replace it with the concept called "Multicultural". Australian multicultural liquidated discrimination and opened a continent for immigrants of all skin colors and races.

Since 1975, the so-called "Ethnic Radio", which programs are transmitted to more than 50 languages. And in the 80s, entered into operation and "Ethnic TV channel". There are over 2300 national clubs and societies in the country, hundreds of schools for children of immigrants. The advice of ethnic societies and commission on ethnic issues, which are followed by the equal participation of national minorities in social and political life. Intentions are good, but with the practical implementation of the concept far from all safely. Immigrants are 60 percent of factory workers, while the most profitable positions, for example, in public service, are 80 percent engaged in Australians of English origin.

Now in Australia there are almost all nationalities of our planet. True, the population is still 95 percent consists of white, but the share of immigrants from the UK has decreased to 75 percent. The remaining quarter of the population is a dead ethnic mixture. Suites from Asia are still in the minority, but they made particularly noticeable changes in the appearance of the country.

One journalist from Paris newspaper "Mond", Arriving after a long break in Sydney, I was amazed: "Really, the city became Asian?" Persons of people with whom we meet on the streets, restaurants, alien signs, – all this really creates a humble impression. Previously, when immigrants came mainly from Europe, here, except English, in the go were, above all, Italian and Greek. And now the second language became Chinese with all his dialects.

The chipping of the fifth continent goes a rapid pace. In the anniversary for Australia, 1988 in the Beijing magazine "China" A curious note appeared: "In February 1988, a Chinese park was laid in the Australian city of Sydney on an area of ​​10 thousand square meters "July" ("friendship") who became the largest abroad park in chinese style. Park buildings occupied 1500 square meters of square, the rest of the park is a slide, lake, landscaped sections – just 40 picturesque corners. Here you can see the inherent colorful arbors, pavilions, terraces, elegant bridges and bizarre stones. A park "July" – The fruit of the joint work of the builders of China and Australia, a symbol of friendship between the peoples of both countries. Open to the 200th anniversary of the Education of Australia, the park brought the Australian people joy and introduced new paints to the beautiful palette of the city".

Paints with paints, but the joy is not so indisputable. In 1995, every 12th resident of Sydney was born in Asia, and in 2020, according to Demographer Charles Price, Asian blood will be in the veins of every sixth sets. In 1995, Henry Chang, Deputy Mayor Sydney, began the struggle for the post of mayor in the election in the city meeting. As noted in the press, "If he eventually benefit them, a Australian of Chinese origin will be at the head of the city". By the way, the current mayor of Seattle (USA) is American Chinese.

History sometimes puts curious experiments. Compare, for example, Australia and the United States. In the emergence of these countries a lot of common. Both were colonized, both – both white migrants from Europe. In both cases, these were marginals, tightened or broken with the then European civilization. In both cases, the colony was part of the British Empire. Climate of both territories comparable, source resources too. The indigenous population, aborigines, and there and here it did not have any resistance. Historical typology almost completely coincides.

And in the rest of the United States and Australia – countries are very different. This is not least explained by the fact that "Marginala" (This term is not fully correct, but we will use it conditional) in them were different. In America, they were mainly religious dissidents. They did not just raise her land, minerals, fur, gold and other wealth. But first of all, a certain spiritual mission was carried out. They believed that they follow high purpose: they create a new world on the new earth, based on true Christian principles. Something happened, something is not. But America as civilization did not mind.

And in Australia, as we remember, at first people were sent, who were not friends with the law. And the second stream poured the people with an adventure vein, adventurers. Third – people who fled from revolutions and wars. So it turned out as a result of such an intricate hybrid. According to sociological polls, quite friendly.

In general, probably, it’s good that Australians are not like Americans. To each his own.

In the country of antipodov

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