In the edge of cultural fossils
This winter from Russia in Jordan was for the first time a charter flight for tourists was organized. The plane delivered Russian vacationers directly to Aqaba, the resort on the Red Sea. Russians, with this Middle Eastern country are not familiar, doubted: to dedicate your vacation to a beach holiday or go on a bus on a four-day sightseeing tour "Opening Jordan"? About why in Jordan should go on a tour, tells the correspondent to Elena Chineeva.
It remains only to be surprised at how this small Middle East country with a population of 5.2 million people and about 90 thousand. kv. km manages to save peace and calm throughout its territory. Neighbors, it came to the most part not the most peace-loving – Israel in the West, in the east of Iraq with Saudi Arabia, in the north of Syria. Nevertheless, the explosions do not raude in the territory of the Kingdom of Jordan, and foreigners are welcoming, not imposing the rules of conduct prescribed by Islam, as often happens in Muslim countries.
Oil or other valuable minerals in the country no. Main Local Wealth – History. The fact that the territory of modern Jordan has been at the crossroads of the Middle East civilizations for thousands of years, can hardly leave indifferent. No wonder because of Jordan dreams of archaeologists. Found here the most ancient traces of human activity belong to the Epoch of Paleolithic (200 thousand.- 8 thousand. years to N. NS.). With the onset of the Bronze Age (3300-1200 before. NS.) Here are fortified cities, and the objects found indicate the close relations of the region with Egypt, Antique Greece and Cyprus. During the period of the Iron Age (1200-550 before. NS.) The Arab Property is formed in Jordan, repeatedly mentioned in the Bible. Biblical sources report that during the conquest of Persians (594-331 before. NS.) Jordan has become one of the Persian satrapy. After hiking Alexander Macedonsky (311-63 before. NS.) Persians pushed out the Greeks, built a number of fortified cities along the caravan ways from Damascus to Aqabu, and the Greek language began to prevail in the whole region.
At about the same time in the south of the current Jordan, the mysterious Nabatie Kingdom arose (312 years before. NS.-112 year N. NS.). By his capital, the swabs made a place where trading routes were crossed, walking along the coast of the Red Sea, from Western Arabia and the Persian Gulf countries, – Peter, the city in the rocks. Today it is hardly the main attraction of Jordan, which is located in a number of the most valuable world monuments protected by UNESCO. Even if you won’t see anything else in Jordan, the impressions received from Petra, with interest, will justify the trip to this country (the editors thanks for travel acerma Anyway, bodies. 747-78-06, website on the Internet www.Any-Way.RU).
In the heart of Petra leads a narrow gorge, squeezed between two staometer rock walls, which are cut into small funeral chambers and galleries. From the gorge you get on a small area in front of the rock, turned into a huge facade of the Greek Temple – Nabataya Known was fond of Greek art. This is the so-called treasury, the main monument to Petra. Fans of the Sinkie Piece about Indiana Jones probably remember her on the film "Indiana Jones and the last crusade". However, the treasury is only part of the amazing ensemble of Peter. Even if you do not go from the main tourist trail, catering on mountain paths, you will see hundreds of buildings, burial cameras and temples. Here there is a theater for 3 thousand. Places leading to a huge monastery Potted Street with columns, on both sides of which were residential buildings, baths and public buildings. The shortest excursion by Peter lasts five hours. For a more thoughtful inspection will take several days. By the way, tired by Petro can ease their lives, overcoming part of the path on the donkey.
Nice fortress past
However, in Jordan there is something to see and besides Petra. Many monuments left the Romans who came to this region after the Greeks and the Nabantians. The era of Roman conquest was stretched for several hundred years – she lasted from 63rd to 330. NS. Romans who came from the north under the command of Pompey, won the country, formed a league of ten cities (Decapolis), which included today’s capital of Jordan Amman, while called Philadelphia. The tourist center of Amman – the Citadel, in which monuments of various historical eras are concentrated: from the temple of the Roman God Hercules to the Church of the Byzantine period and the Palace of Omeyadov. Two renovated Roman theater are located at the foot of the Citadel. One by 6 thousand. places, and another total of 500. Both are used for cultural events today.
An indelible impression leaves a huge, only half an excavated Roman city in Gerash. This is the largest cities of the Roman province who came to this day and, of course, the second most important after Peters is the landmark of Jordan. Unusual beauty The central square of the city in the form of oval, surrounded by columns, temples and shopping streets, creates a full illusion that you are in Rome. In June, the annual music festival is held in Jerash, the program of which includes folk dances, modern and classical music, dramatic productions. The remnants of an ancient city, including theater, basil and street with columns, as well as shopping streets can also be seen in mind-kais and Tabcat-Fakhal.
In the IV century, our era, Roman domination changed by Byzantine. From this period, Christian temples and mosaics are preserved. An hour from Amman, Madaba, famous for its mosaic. However, they can be found in the local churches and buildings of the Byzantine and later periods. In one of the churches you can see the famous Mosaic Card of the Holy Land, dated by the VI century. Ancient masters depicted a dead sea and surroundings, including Jerusalem, making a canvas of 2 million colored fragments.
Arabs, who came to Jordan in 640, left behind numerous fortresses. The most famous is the Fort in Ajlun (XII-XV century). Today, this impressive monument to Muslim military architecture is surrounded by a pine nature reserve, the most southernmost in the world. The Jordanian authorities want to do the center of ecotourism here, hoping that the coolness of a pine boron, and the historical monuments in the vicinity of Ajluna will attract tourists here even in the hot season.
Some more fortresses known for their frescoes and mosaics are waiting for the Amman Favorite Architecture Amman Favorite Architecture,. The participants in the crusades of the XII-XIII centuries, who left the knightly castles, from which Kerak and Shobc are most famous here. The following rulers of Jordan – Mamli Turks, which have ruled here since the end of the XIII at the beginning of the XVI century, and who came after them the Ottoman Empire, which the country was part of 1918, also left the solid set of fortresses, in particular the fort in Aqaba. Finally, the last famous Citadel is built from the Black Basalt Fort Azrac. During the First World War, he was headquartered with the Ottoman Empire of the British Scout and the International Aventurist of Lawrence Arabian, who united the disassembled Bedouin tribes under the banner of Wahhabism and led to power in Arabia the Saudis dynasty.
The result of his activity was that in 1921, Britain recognized the transice (old name of the country) by an independent state under its protectorate. Frequently from English guardianship managed only on May 25, 1946, when Jordan was declared an independent chashit kingdom. In 1952, King Hussein, who ruled the country for 47 years and has gained respect all over the world. All world elite arrived at his funeral in February 1999, including heads of Russia and the USA. Currently, the king is the son of Hussein Abdalla II. His mother was Englishwoman, and he himself received an education in Britain and, like his father, supports the secular nature of power in Jordan emphasized. Such a policy, however, does not drop by the prestige of the royal power: Portraits of Hussein, Abdullah II and his wife Rania with children can be seen everywhere.
Many in Jordan and religious attractions. For example, on the mountain of the sky, where a memorable stone is now installed and there is a church with medieval mosaics, according to legend, the prophet Moses died. With the famous mountain, a stunning view of the surroundings opens, including the West Bank of the Jordan River, which belonged to Jordan to the war with Israel of 1967 together with East Jerusalem. Going down to the river on a winding path through thickets Tamarisk, you get to the legendary place of the baptism of Jesus Christ. The most descent to the river is currently being built by the Greek temple, the dome of which will cover the gilding for the money of the Russian sponsor.
At the origins of tourism
At the disposal of Jordanians there are two nautical coasts, which could be turned into large tourist centers – the eastern tip of the Dead Sea and the eastern same part of the Aqaba bay on the Red Sea with the city of Aqaba, which today serves as a resort. Although the resort is strongly said. Tourism here just begins to develop. In essence, tourists who come to the country are aware of it or not, there are the process of the origin of the Jordanian tourist business. For example, on the Red Sea coast, Renessance and MoEvenpick hotels have already appeared, and this year the opening of a five-star InterContinental hotel is expected to open with a large territory and their own access to the sea. Moreover, Aqaba guests even offer to do diving, parachute and – about a miracle! – Play golf. There are, however, and more noticeable successes. For example, a Sofitel Hotel in the International Network, located in Taipet-Zaman next to Petro. This high-class hotel is a renovated Turkish village, whose huts are turned into a comfortable hotel challenches "lux".
In the development of the Dead Sea of Jordan, so far has succeeded much less firmly attached on the opposite shore of Israel. On the Jordanian coast for tourists only three upscale hotels – five-star Movenpick Hotel and Resort, Jordan Valley Marriott and a four-star Dead Sea Spa Hotel. At the disposal of Israeli tourist businessmen – several dozen SPA hotels offering their guests sanatorium services. Here we use the main resource of the Dead Sea – warm, saturated with salts and mud water, which has a lining and healing effect in the treatment of a number of diseases. Meanwhile, on the Jordanian side of a unique reservoir there are thermal sources, the largest of which is a waterfall Hammamat Mine. It is formed by water, which are going to high in the mountains during winter rains, then seep through rocks, including underground lava layers, heating up to 60 ° C to then depighted down.
Jordanians learn to use the tourist purposes and the mountains and deserts belonging to them, the benefit in recent years these are completely useless from the point of view of the territory of the territory use extraordinary popularity among ecotourism lovers. In the Jordanian desert, Wadi Rama even developed a network of routes for climbing lovers, the degree of complexity – with the third on the sixth inclusive. Tourists can get to the camp of local trails – in the country there are quite good car roads, and you can rent a car without fears. Although the mountainous desert with multi-colored hills picturesque at any time, foreigners love to throw for several days to the Desert, seducing them with additional natural beauties, which can be observed at sunset when day paints first change beyond recognition, and then suddenly dissolve in fast upcoming twilight.