In the steppe capital

In 1991, a new era began for Kazakhstan – he became an independent state. And then the whole world, including the nearest neighbors, was surprised: what is this unknown country in the heart of Eurasia? Country is generally or so – the steppe of Polovtsaya? Few people were seriously interested in the steppe to "New era". For foreign researchers, it was practically unavailable, pre-revolutionary Russian works are outdated, and Soviet scientists and administrators did not really try to know her, having thrown over three million "Squares" between the Caspian and Altai, Siberia and Central Asia, the role of an empty space for the development of peoples, forcibly substituted. The post-Soviet man in the street at a certain voltage of his memory can only be remembered by the following brands: Coleno, Baikonur and Ollas Suleimenov … The paradox is that for the Kazakhstanis themselves, the terra of incognita.

For many years, Kazakhstan was alienated from his own history: first as part of the Russian Empire, and then, and then, he existed as a chimerical education without supercount, overall, culture and religion. The traditional lifestyle for the Kazakhs – the nomadic – was presented as something flawed and wild, reminiscent of the distant and restless times of the steppe.

In the XI-XV centuries, the Great Eurasian Plain from Irtysh to the Danube, from the Crimea to the Bulgarian Great on the Volga, where the Kypchak-and-Kypchak called the Arabic and Persian texts – the Kypchak steppe, and in the Russian – Polovtsoy field. In the XVI-XVIII centuries, after the Turkic superethnos collapsed into several independent ethnic groups, most of the powerful Turkic tribe of Kypchakov entered the Kazakh Nation, and the Kypchak steppe, or just a steptee, began to call the territory of modern Kazakhstan.

Parallel "Steppe – Kazakhstan" Yes, perhaps, even ethnonym "Kazakh", preserved in its inner form "free" (not the last role in this, by the way, played Russian word "Cossack" of the same origin) and accounted for balances "National Kazakh idea".

After receiving independence, the young republic immediately engaged in revising historiography: mythology flourished, local "Chronicles", Not particularly boring facts, they began to represent the steppe with a cradle of the human civilization and the land of the promised … foam, but in this soap foam there are and "child", which we will try not to throw out. Pafos new studies will be easily explained, and the main idea is not so crazy, as it may seem, and briefly sounds like this: the steppe is not "buffer" between East and West, and special cultural space.

For kibitsa nomadic

Friedrich Nietzsche wrote: "It is very likely that the philosophers of the Ural-Altai lawful (and the Kazakh language goes back to them. – approx. Red.) in which the concept of everything is worst "subject", Otherwise, look "deep into the world" And they will go in other ways, rather than Indochmanman and Muslims .." Language fact mentioned by the author "Zarathustra", reflects the specifics "nomadic thinking" – thinking of nomadic peoples to which the Kazakhs belong.

Sedded peoples and nomads have a different perception of time and space, society and themselves. Space for the settled limited breeches of its city or state, no matter how extensive they are, but for a nomad it is infinitely and mystically attractive. If you attract mythical images, then the first is the minotavers of urban labyrinths, the second – centaurs of endless expanses. The essence of the relationship between space and humans is the path, a peculiar metaphor of understanding and unity between them.

We selected path along the steppe – also metaphor, though random. As you know, the Kazakh ethnos is divided into three Zhuza (branches): the eldest – in the south, the middle – in the north and center, the youngest – in the West. Zhuza – Regional Unions of Tribes (in Russian "horde") – the Kazakh Khanate appeared in the XV century, from which the United Kazakh Nation leads its history. It so happened that on the historical territory of each of the zhuza there is its capital: in the south of Alma-Ata – Cultural and Financial, in the north of Astana – administrative and bureaucratic, in the west of Atyrau – Oil and Fish. The first on our way – Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan – Almaty.

Each shambal for each

Many Chinese and Indian wise men, among them Lao Tzu and Buddha, in search of the sacred land indicated in about Almaty. V "Calachakre Tantre" It is written: "Shambalu surround eight snowy mountains that resemble lotus flowers". According to the description, it is very similar to the tract of Chimbulak in the vicinity of Alma-Ata. As far as it is plausible, it is necessary to prove scientists, but the city is really located in a fabulous place – at the foot of the Northern Range of Tien Shan – Zailean Alatau at an altitude of 700-900 meters above sea level, in the valleys of small rivers – Big and Malaya Almaty.

In Almaty region, many curious places worthy of traveler visit: a mysterious traction Tamgali with ancient weak pictures, a unique Charan Canyon to 300 meters deep, which is compared with a large canyon in American Colorado. Just 15 kilometers from Alma-Ata – the most high-along rink in the world of Medeo, known as "Records factory" – For 30 years, more than one hundred world records were installed on his ice. But we are interested in the city itself – one of the most beautiful in Central Asia.

It is difficult to get lost here even come: Alma-Ata is divided into squares, and longitudinal streets have a small rise from the north to south, so the coordinate system is quite simple: up and down, left and right. And already the first walk through the central street gives an idea of ​​urban flavor and local orders. On Ablajian Street Lukovo, smiling landlords will offer you to rent an apartment for every taste, in any area and at any time, Sain Street is notable "Night butterflies", who start "flap" From early evening twilight, and Seifullina Street was chosen by the unemployed.

The title of the financial capital of Alma-Ata is unofficially, but deservedly. In the singular city "million pain" Kazakhstan is concentrated by all the leading banks and the central offices of most large companies, and recently Alma-Ata hit the list of the most expensive cities in the world. It was here that a special population of Kazakhstani nuvhorishe, who rebuild the city to their taste. Not particularly worrying about the preservation of a unique almaty style, harmoniously combined oriental and steppe motives and Russian neoclassicism, "New Kazakhs" Mechanically transfer to their homeland overseas wanders. Today in Alma-Ata, you can see Mini Palaces of A la Versailles and a miniature Eiffel Tower, Greek colonnades and Roman porticors, Japanese gardens of stones and Moorish castles. There is, however, and patriots who prefer at home with a national flavor – "Under Yurt".

The social changes and the continuity of the ELITE EMKO and are not desiccable in "folk" Names of urban areas: "Domodedovo" – prestigious area in the center where the party-rank elite of the former pore lives; "Vnukovo" – microdistrict "Samal", Built on the USSR extell, where the grandchildren of these former officials will be settled, "Bykovo" – the luxurious area of ​​the palaces on the sublime essentials of the city, where Nuvorishi settled, in slang – "Bulls".

From aula to the capital

If you believe the archaeologists, then in the 10th century BC. NS. Lands of modern Alma-Ata were chosen for the standings of Turkic and Mongolian nomads. Saki and Usunsky tribes for thousands of years left in the vicinity of many Kurgans. In the XIII century, there was already a real city in the place of the current Almaty: he stood on a great silk path and had his coin, on which his name was mentioned for the first time: "Chekhann This Dirham in Almaty". But the Silk Road, and together with him and the city culture came to decline – by the end of the XVI century, only a major aul remained from Alma. Only in three centuries – in 1854 – new construction began here: the government of Tsarist Russia found the military strengthening of the Military Almaty. In 1859, the geodesist Golubev comedoned from St. Petersburg celebrated the right point – so for the first time this place appeared on the world maps. In less than 10 years, Ostrog Doros to the city. The city faithfully became the administrative center of the Semirechensky region of the Turkestan General Governorship. With the arrival of Soviet power and "to commemorate historical for seven beginnings of the liberation of Muslim poor" On February 5, 1921, it was decided to rename the faithful in Almaty on the old location: Almaty – "Apple-eye". An apple bodies called these places not for the sake of the red sense – Academician Vavilov argued that anywhere else he had to see such an abundance of the varieties of wild apple trees with fruits, so close to the garden. It is said that the parbulls are slightly mistaken – it must be not almaty, but still Almaty, nevertheless the name has taken place. Alma-Ata since 1929 – the capital at first the Kazakh ASSR, then the Kazakh SSR, from 1991 to the 1997th – Independent Republic of Kazakhstan. In 1993, the city was renamed in Almaty, but Alma-Ata is still called it in Russia.

Starting point

New society, new luxury – the consequences of the 1990s of the 1990s, but not he made Alma-Atu by the city-symbol of new Kazakhstan. In recent years, the 20th century has occurred here two significant events in the history of the country: one of them began, and the other way to independence was completed.

On December 17, 1986, on the current area of ​​the republic, and then – the square named after Leonid Brezhnev, a huge crowd of young people gathered with numerous slogans, the main of which was: "Every people – their leader". Such a reaction was caused by the appointment of the first secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan "Varyaga" From Russia instead of Kazakh Dinmukhamed Kunaev. In response, the central government with full promotion of local officials "Launched" Special operation "Blizzard". Until now, an exact number of dead is unknown: according to official data – 8 people, and according to the Independent Parliamentary Commission – 168. Be that as it may, December events in Alma-Ata first demonstrated that in the relations of the fraternal peoples of the USSR, not everything.

It is symbolic that here is exactly five years old, on December 16, 1991, the Parliament of the Republic adopted a decision on independence, and on December 21, a meeting of leaders of the 11 post-Soviet republics was held in the circular hall of the House of Friendship, which was announced by the CIS institution and enshrined the termination decision existence of the Soviet Union.

The Square of Brezhnev was renamed to the Square of the Republic and established the independence monument on it: the top of a 30-meter stele crowned the winged Bars with a calm-permanent "Golden Warrior". And snow leopard, local relict animal, and "Golden Warrior", Copying found during the excavation of Kurgan Issyk "Golden man", Steel national symbols. Wild Tien Shan Cat We do not even hope to meet in our way – they are just a few hundred left, but to look closer to the unique archaeological find – Issyk people can be in the Central State Museum. The reconstructed figure of a warrior in clothing from thousands of gold plates gives a bright idea of ​​how Saki looked – tribes, nomaded in the steppes in the first 1st millennium BC. NS.

We ferment among thousands of exhibits in search of those along with "Golden man" became signs for seeking themselves Kazakhs. Here is the Saxegole deity of the Sakian period, here is the traditional Kazakh yurt, where the right half is female, and the left – male, here is the military armor of the Turk, and here are the magnificent gold jewelry in the animal style of Scythians, and these are made later by steppe jewelers … but it’s time for us to move on.

Finally, I want to look at the Al-Ata panorama, and the best place to review – Kok-Tube Hill. Rising, we, alas, barely distinguish between the vague shadows of buildings, cars and people. The city is located in the foothill basin, and its beauty is now hidden from the eyes almost permanent: 80% it consists of exhaust gases. Almatyians hope that the transfer of the capital in "Flat" Astana will redirect transport streams and improve the situation. In the meantime, we stayed without panoramic species and following the flows of vehicles went to the cool northern capital.

Kazakhstan – Construction of the Century

The beginning of the XXI century in Kazakhstan coincided with the beginning of large construction. A new country on the political map of the world has opened new horizons for local ambitions and foreign capital, and steppe mounds "Shaved" skyscrapers. The economic leap caused the growth of the population in large cities, apartments, religious structures, shops, hotels, restaurants and cafes became needed. Domestic companies began to build new offices, and foreign – build large hotels. The government was closely housing and its own image: in 2000, the concept of long-term financing of housing construction was announced and it was decided to turn the new capital Astana in "Showcase of prosperous Kazakhstan". Budget funds for the construction of administrative buildings and residential complex flowed by the river. In Astana, many officials have such apartments that did not even dream of the English Queen. Regional leaders, not wanting to lagging from the metropolitan akim (governor), began construction in the field, although the main "Growth of Square" observed in three capitals. In January 2008, 639.3 thousand were commissioned in the republic. M2 of the total area of ​​buildings, which in terms of 1000 people is 41.1 m2. In Astana, this figure exceeded the Name Raspanic almost 10 times, in Alma-Athe – 3.25 times, in the Atyrau region – by 39.4%. Yes why not to build – would be capital! And he was: in general, in the republic, the investment in construction amounted to 400 billion shadow in 2000 (more than 3 billion dollars), and by 2006 – 2074 billion tenge (almost 20 billion dollars). A significant part of these dollars – its own oil, but local banks are vigorously supported by local banks, and more energetic – foreign banks. Plus private capital .. "New Kazakhs" How the class appeared later "New Russians", But – in any case, in the anecdotes – for a long time they have been shared along scale "Thrust" of money. Nomenclature of class equipment indicators Standard: vacation in Maldives and in Saint-Tropez, world-class stars on the birthday of Chad, which is studying in the best universities of Russia, Europe and the USA (and in recent times and China), and, of course, movable and real estate. This new one "monetary" Elite Along with foreign investors and the state "Engine" construction paper. Simultaneously with rapid construction since 2002, the rapid increase in housing prices began. The average price of a square meter in the center of Almaty for seven years has increased – even taking into account the devaluation – almost 20 times ($ 250 per square meter in 2002, by mid-2007 turned almost $ 3,600). Similar picture was observed in Astana, and in Atyrau. Euphoria lasted for a long time – it became obvious that such large-scale construction would be cost-effective only if in Almaty and Astana began to live urgently, for example, Japanese pensioners for permanent residence, and massively. And for a slender interlayer of the middle class of housing prices "Lapless". In addition, 90% of the activities of developers were funded at the expense of credit funds, and the crisis of international debt markets immediately affected Kazakhstan: many companies simply stopped work, and never managed to sell "Customized"… so far the government highlights developers tools on "Dodelka" unfinished objects, buy empty "Multi-storey" And it is not amenable to panic – it has long been known that for all booms it is necessary to decline.

Metropolitan "stuff"

Kazakhs – the people of nomadic, restless, so they are easy and often change their "bid". Only in the twentieth century the capitals of the steppe were Kzyl-Orda and Alma-Ata, and at the end of the century, in 1997, Astana became the main city of the country. Prior to that, she was known as Kara-Office, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, Akmola … Last name – Translated "White grave" – It seemed gloomy, so the capital was given another simple name – the capital. In Kazakh – Astana.

As often happens, there is a certain rivalry between residents of the old and new capitals. Almaty people are proud of their culture and in the capital’s residents see the bureaucratic upstarts astanintsy also admire his "unique" architecture and downplay look at "Pestruya" Alma-Atu.

More recently, Akmola, located in a swampy terrain on the banks of the Ishim River, was an ordinary provincial city that, if he was famous, with terrible frosts. Today Astana has already managed to glorify the unusual building: the city, especially the left bank, is growing rapidly and changes literally in front of his eyes. Very different metropolitan buildings – whether it’s a huge building Astana-Baiterek Tower skyscraper Transport or the Palace of Peace and Accord in the form of a glass pyramid – are united by one goal: to create an image of the city of the future.

The new appearance of the official Kazakh capital causes a lot of robs and hot disputes. Some are read in the main facilities explicit Masonic symbols, someone is inclined to see in terms of the city and buildings Sufi ideas. Unusual architectural forms only contribute to the emergence of different interpretations. Baiterek monument, for example, only remotely resembles a tree ("Baiterek" – in Kazakh "poplar"): Metal "trunk" Supports a huge ball with a diameter of 22 meters and 300 tons of glass weighing "chameleon", Changing color depending on sunlight.

Adepti "Masonic theory" see in it a dual symbol of phallic start and eggs – a source of life, and "Sufi" – the mythical tree of the world, which grows in the very center of the Earth and on it a bird of happiness Samruk smear his nest and raises eggs.

Proverbs in the town became the palace of peace and consent – a huge pyramid designed "poet Heytec" Sir Normal Foster and a place for the museum of national culture and university of civilizations for the praying of representatives of 32 religious denominations. In the Sufi interpretation of the pyramid – this is a mystical bridge, according to which the spirits of rulers from the earthly world went to Heavenly. Her hand symbolize earth elements – earth, water, air and fire. The Masonic reading – a mystical Navel of the Earth: the ideal pyramid whose faces at the base and a height equal to each other (60 meters), and are identical to the corners of the pyramid of 60 degrees, and if you add up all these numbers, you get a kind of a magic number.

It is noteworthy that a single official version does not exist – a handout, which I picked up at the entrance to the Palace, brings more confusion: "In this building you can see much of the symbolism of the Illuminati, as referred to in the popular recent books by American author Dan Brown – "The Da Vinci Code" and "Angels and Demons".

Astanintsy themselves, which are not inferior to the former residents of the capital on the part of clever nicknames, has long been dubbed buildings in their own way: Baiterek – "lollipop", and the highest in the CIS office building Transport Tower – "lighter"… For myself, I decided long ago: it does not matter who is right, only let Kazakhstan by transferring their capital and its many-valued layout will be prosperous state.

Besides Astana deserves to be "locomotive" young Kazakh statehood: it is here, according to the famous iranistki Mary Boyce was born the prophet Zarathustra, arias from sort Spitama. And not far from the capital city of Chelyabinsk University Professor Gennady Zdanowicz he opened the ancient and mysterious civilization Arch comparable with Sumer. And indeed most, perhaps, obvious symbolism in Astana is a geographical fact – it is located exactly in the center of the Eurasian continent.

The new capital of the Eurasian idea is extremely popular – self development plan united the East and West: to design a new part of the city invited Japanese architect Kurokawa Ahir, and the Palace of Peace and Accord – the British architect Norman Foster and the artist Brian Clarke. This idea is in the Kazakh capital is justified: in the world there are only three states that are geographically located in Asia and Europe. This is Turkey, Russia and Kazakhstan.

"The Russian question"

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the tsarist government began to relocate a large number of landless Russian and Ukrainian peasants in the steppe, who were given the best lands. The resettlement continued in Soviet times, his peak came on the years of mastering virgin. As a result, the demographic picture of the steppe began to quickly change to the fact that the Kazakhs – from 1939 – became a national minority at home:

Ethnicians years
1926 1939 1970 1989 1999 2007
Kazakh 58.5 37.8 32.5 39,7 53,4 58.0
Russians 20.6 40.0 42,4 37.8 30.0 26.0

In 1989, 6 million 230 thousand Russians lived in Kazakhstan. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the receipt of Kazakhstan independence in the 1990s, about one and a half million ethnic Russians went to Russia. The reasons were different: the desire to live in a historical homeland, a higher level of education for young people, and most importantly – socio-economic problems in the young Kazakhstan republic, which were very sharp in the mid-1990s. Some feared the strengthening of local nationalism, but this factor did not have a significant value. Currently, the relationship between the Kazakhs and Russians is mostly even and benevolent. The role of the Russian language in the republic, which has the status of the official, as was the leading, such and remains. Almost all population, regardless of nationality, speaks of it, by the way, in parliament he dominates. Some Russian cultural figures visiting Kazakhstan assure that Russian is cleaner here than in Russia itself. The problem is not so much with the Russians, how much with the Kazakh language, which is now forced to compete not only with "Great and mighty" Russian, but also with omnipresent english. The number of Russians in state structures has noticeably decreased, but in the business and the production of their position very durable.

Between Europe and Asia

A preview of the whole Eurasian idea demonstrates Astana "Map of Kazakhstan – Atameken". The whole country is 14 areas and 2 cities of republican importance, climatic zones and landscapes, cultural monuments and town-planning ensembles – on the scale of 1:16,000 fitted on an area of ​​1.7 hectares. I wander on this miniature Kazakhstan and reflect on his place in the world.

The multi-vector steppe policy defines its geographical location – between Russia, China and the Muslim south. Naturally, the United States is played, "Ovissing" over the world. In accordance with this, Kazakhstan will be aphorism: "Russia is our past, from which we are still not far away, the United States is not very firmly affirmative, China is a remote, but inevitable future".

The population is also configured in its own way "multi-vector": Most adults focuses on Russia, advanced youth – to the West, a significant part of believers – on Muslim south, and most of the trade businessmen are on China. Figuratively speaking, in the middle of Kazakhstanis Russian soul, Western brains, Muslim customs, Chinese robe and … steppe illusions.

Most of all in Kazakhstan, of course, with Russia. Both countries – two typical Eurasian states, both – for a long time were part of the same empires – Mongolian and Russian (including its Soviet variety), both are located on the colossal territories and in the area, respectively, the first and ninth places in the world. And there – in different proportions – the Christian Orthodoxy and Islam of Sunni Sunny, Eastern Slavs and Western Turks, Russian and Turkic dominated.

By the way, the language policy of Kazakhstan is trying to take into account "Eurasian factor": in the field of government, Kazakh and Russian languages ​​are co-official. For example, the minutes of mazerage meetings – the Lower House of Parliament – are conducted in two languages. In addition, to implement a presidential program: to enter a short time in the number of the 50 most developed countries of the world, Kazakhs, according to Nazarbayev, need knowledge of English. Even the principle of the trinity of these languages ​​is proclaimed, although it is, of course, in the future ..

In the meantime, the country takes the first steps in the international arena: Parliamentarians of the European Union willingly come to share experiences with Kazakhstani deputies, the Republic with pride presents its model of inter-ethnic and interfaith consent to the world, taking the congresses of world and traditional religions, and the unconditional success of the country’s political reforms was election Kazakhstan as chairman of the OSCE in 2010. And now all European fans know that Kazakhstani footballers participate in the UEFA Cup games. True, they are unsuccessful, so European teams who fall with them in one group are always happy to them.

… in a matter of minutes I went around the toy Kazakhstan – from the European part to the Asian and back. To the city of Atyrau – the last point of our trip – there are several tens of meters, in reality – more than one and a half thousand kilometers, which we will overcome on the plane.

Great relocation of peoples

In the steppe capital

Before World War II and during the war, Joseph Stalin due to possible "Political unreliability" Many peoples have deported from different ends of the Soviet Union to Kazakhstan. The first ruling of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR on this occasion under the vulture "top secret" It was April 28, 1936, it was called: "On eviction from the Ukrainian SSR and the economic device in the Karaganda region of the Kazakh ASSR of 150 thousand Polish and German farms". It was only the beginning, later the same fate awaited many other nations. On January 1, 1953 (three months before the death of Stalin) in Kazakhstan were 974,900 special sellers: 448,626 Germans, 244 674 Chechen, 80,444 Ingush, about 96,000 Koreans, 37 114 Greeks, 35,960 Poles, 32,619 people from Georgia , 6560 – from Crimea and others. Among the deported were also representatives of the ancient people – Assyrians, about 400 people. After the collapse of the USSR, the settlers began to endure: from a million deported from the Pilge of the Germans, the majority returned to Germany (222,000 people remained in Kazakhstan). Greek, "Frees" From the Crimea and the Krasnodar Territory, began to leave back in the 1960s: who is in Krasnodar who is at the Motherland of the ancestors – to Greece. By 1989, their number in Kazakhstan was 46,746 people, in the years of independence, about half of them left.

PERSONAL West

Astana asked the impulse to our visit, and the first place where we go to Atyrau is a bridge over the Ural River, where one step can be moved from Asia to Europe and vice versa. It is at the expense of part of the territory of the Atyrau and Ural regions of Kazakhstan formally relates to Europe. And it was here that there was a unique religious symbiosis, which is so proud of modern Kazakhstan, but about everything in order.

Atyrau is located at the extreme West of the Republic, famous for his buoy winds. The city arose on the banks of the Ural River in 1640 as a fishing village and at first called Guriev, named by his Russian merchant Mikhail Gurieva. Kazakh name Atyrau translates as "delta" – It is now the Caspian Sea left two dozen kilometers, and before the city was almost on the shore.

These places mentioned more ancient Greek patients, and some of them said that he lived here from nonreid – Fetid, the mother of the Homeric Hero of Achilla, and lived the famous warriors – Amazons. It was argued and turned into a huge empire Mysterious Khazar Kaganat, where Turks, the ancestors of the Kazakhs, were confessed at the same time three religions – Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

This is, by the way, the only case in history when Jews – "chosen nation" – let the other ethnos in the Lono of their religion. Israeli scientist David Buyner wrote about this: "The appeal of the Khazar in Judaism is a unique phenomenon in medieval history, since the adoption of a whole ethnic group of Judaism, in contrast to the adoption of world religions, means a refusal of its ethnic essence in favor of Jewish". There is another point of view: Local Turks were not at all going to abandon their ethnicity, they simply, moving truly with an ecumenical desire, tried to unite all three Avramic religions. Perhaps it was a naive attempt, but it deserves closest.

And again I involuntarily bind "Khazar phenomenon" With a nomadic past steppes and remember the reasoning of the famous Kazakhstan culturologist Murat Ausov: "In the middle of the first millennium BC, in the era, called the era of the Prophets or, on Jaspers, axial time, in different parts of the world, giving great teachings and world religions. And it is the nomads that become a binding element between these spiritual foci of world civilization. No one says that they carried only the benefit of updates, nomads were conquerors, but objectively the process of unification of humanity began with the emergence of this new dynamic strength, and it produced high-quality coup in history. So the human dialogue with a large space coincided with the universalization of the Spirit .."

Kazakh West is rich in charismatic heroes of nomad. One of them, Khan Junior Zhuza Abulkhair – the initiator of the joining of the steppe to Russia, which gradually began in October 1731. In Soviet times, he was infrated in Kazakhstan as much as Bogdan Khmelnitsky in Ukraine. In the first years of independence, some historians began to hint at the fact that because of him the steppe lost independence and it would be necessary "Hero" debunk … But then, in the most difficult period for the Kazakh people, Khan Abulhair did reasonably. At the beginning of the XVIII century, numerous enemies and the main among them were collapsed into the Kazakh cohanice and the main among them – Dzungary – Western Mongols. It was about the survival of the nation.

In 1726, representatives of all the tribes Abulhair were proclaimed by the commander-in-chief of the Kazakh militia. And in 1729, in the decisive battle of Annurakai, he broke the Jungian troops, and the liberation of the territories occupied by them began. After such a difficult victory, all the zhuzes were to unite, but, alas, the interdisciples of the careless Kazakhs did not stop, and in such conditions Khan Abulkhair accepted a difficult and fateful decision – about accession to a mighty neighbor: the steppe had long connected his destiny with Russia.

A new approach to its own history during the years of independence has changed the assessment of many events "long past years". In particular, the conflict of two iconic characters of the first half of the XIX century: Khan Dzhangira – the ruler of the decorative Bokekean Horde in the Merrarchier Volga and the Urals – and the elders of Mahambet Utemisov. Canva is known: the brave warrior and the flame Akyn Mahambet raised the uprising against the royal power and its gender of Dzhangira and died.

In Soviet times, all local Masters of Feather challenged Mahambet and beat the royal government, and Dzhangira exhibited Tiran. Soviet ideologists supported this line, not understanding that under the tsarism, Kazakh patriots meant any central government … After revising the history, the image of Mahambet was preserved, but it became less about him, and about Dzhangir – more, and the latter turned into an enlightened and selfless ruler. Khan did not forget about his own good and the good of relatives, but at the same time, the schools sent a talented Kazakh youth to Russian universities and supported culture. And now, the confrontation of Dzhangira and Mahambeta appears as a tragic conflict between two patriots, due to mutual misunderstanding and grave environment.

In general, the Kazakh West is famous for his inconsistency, there were constantly observed by performances against tsarism, and until the 1930s, Adayskaya Wolitsa existed on Mangyshlaka (Adai – one of the tribes of the younger Jus), who did not recognize the Soviet power.

Black gold in Kazakhstan

Until the twentieth century, the main fishing of the city was black caviar. But at the beginning of the last century nearby, in the Dossor, with the opening of the first field of oil, the history of Kazakhstan oil production began ..

On December 22, 1910, two nationals of the UK – Eduard Um-Swede and Otto Adolf Sheet – with the permission of the royal government, created the oil society "Ural Caspian". In 1911, this society began drilling on Emba near the village of Dostorsor, and on April 29 of the same year at 12 o’clock in the afternoon when the depth of 223.11 meters from the well No. 3 hit high-quality oil fountain with an emission of about 9000 tons per day.

At the site of the first well is a modest obelisk in honor of this historical event. And on the territory of Kazakhstan today 202 oil and gas fields are being developed, of which about 70% are concentrated in the Western regions of the country. He having heard about it, one of the descendants of the discovers of Kazakhstan oil – also, naturally, the Englishman – recently visited. It seems that he expected to see something similar to the Arab Emirates, however, to his surprise, the life of local residents did not change much compared to the time of century ago, which he told his grandfather.

By the time of proclamation of independence of Kazakhstan, Atyrau was the backward regional center. Only in the most recent years, due to the active development of local resources, the city began to grow rapidly and gradually gained the status of the oil capital. Oil of Western regions brought significant income to the country who created him a reputation as a successful state. But at the same time came "Dutch disease" Economy and Social Problems. In the Atyrau region, these problems were supplemented with pollution of the Caspian Sea and the Environment.

Our journey ends in Atyrau, and we look at the people of people trying to understand their originality to apply the last strokes in the general portrait of Kazakhstanis. I lived and worked in this city a third century ago and remember the types of time. That were workers, harsh in appearance, but very responsive people. Time and oil changed them ..

Reflections in the saddle

While we "nomadic" In the steppe capital, on a lot in our own country, I looked with other eyes, I remembered a lot and understood ..

Through Kazakhstan, there were a lot of different ways, and not only Silk: from the south, the West, the North and East – in a wide variety of directions. And they all carried with them a special culture and worldview.

There were almost all global and regional religions – Zoroastrianism, Tengrianism, Shamanism, Nesterianism, Buddhism, Manichaean, Judaism, Islam and Orthodoxy. Hence the tolerance and versoity of steppes.

There were not only ideas, but also inevitable pain exile peoples, once dwelling in different ends of the world – Assyrians and Greeks, Kurds and Koreans, Kalmyks and Germans, Turks and Poles, Chechens and Tatars … Among the exiles and prisoners were large Diasporas of Russians, Ukrainians , Jews. Kazakhs who knew what the People’s Mountain was shared with them the last piece of bread and humble blood.

And in the heart of the greatest of the continents – Eurasia with a special sharpness thinks about the purpose of man and eternity. Maybe it’s not by chance that in Kokcheketava was born the idea of ​​Vladimir Vernadsky about the noosphere and with Baikonur on the territory of the steppes are sent to space "Delegates of earthlings"?

Of course, the capital, if there are even three of them, not yet the whole country. Traveling on them is clearly not enough to reveal the notorious secret steppe, but it does not matter. Each country is a mystery, and how the ancient Sufi said: "Mystery keeps herself". Because the steppe reluctantly revealing his secrets will always make a fancy promise to themselves.

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