Incubator of bright future

– One of our classmates ascended.
– Like this?
– I went to Israel. They are called this ascent.
– he is to relatives?
– Well no. By itself. Lives in some kind of camp, or collective farm.

We look at the photo in the style of old collective pictures "Workers of AZLK rest on potatoes harvesting in state farm 50th anniversary of Ilyich": A person about twenty on the lawn with flower beds, the faces are stressful and joyful – and our clima Igor, the tenth in the class list, on the bike shaped so rests. Thin, tanned and not like.

About Israel say: "Jews live here more than a hundred nationalities". And in fact, this is a repatriate country. Someone wanders in the light of some months and on their own request, and who – and all two millennia are laughing, unwanted, whole people, scattered by cities and weighs.

Money at homeland

One hundred years ago Jews from Russia and Poland, Casablanca and Izmir, Baghdad and Brooklyn carefully stored small metal boxes, painted in white-shaped colors. On the lid – map of Palestine, on a blue piece, symbolizing the sea, – the star of David. The piggy bank was invented in 1901 in Basel, when President of the V of the Zonist Congress Dr. Herzl proposed to collect donations for the acquisition of land in Eretz Israel. Jewish National Foundation "Keren Karet Le Israel" tried to attract to the grand planner as many Jews from all over the world. Money was going literally for crumbs. Jews are victory to throw coins in universally installed "general" White-blue piggy banks. Rich delivered "eternal" Feather and signed a check on a large amount. For the most generous sacrifiers established "Golden Book", which was supposed to keep their names for grateful descendants.

In 1903, the Foundation was able to acquire the first land plot in Lower Galilee. After five years, money was enough for a more or less good land in Ben-Shemen, where the first trees were planted, called the Herzl Forest. Aven a year later in Umm-Juni, the first Kibbutz – Dagania Alef. The land purchased for funds was considered the property of the entire Jewish people, and settlers enthusiastically began to cultivate and handle the first Pyats now native land.

On Mayakovsky

The promised land turned out to be non-fermented – stones, desert and swamp. In the afternoon, enthusiasts were unusual to agriculture cultivated fields, and at night, changing the oral on swords, guarded them from militant Bedouins. Arabs and did not think to close peacefully, so I had to create dedication of self-defense and build fortifications. The strange fate was in the state of the most peaceful of the peoples, because now there is little change – life in Israel will not be called safe.

The population of the first kibbutsev lacked water, people mowed hunger and malaria. But the idea was owned by the masses. The Soviet classic poet rightly as about Kibbutsy wrote: "Four years later there will be a garden city". Israeli pioneers of Mayakovsky did not know, but his idea was carried out. Now at the place of the first communes and polished, and the blood of the fields – the city of modern Israel, which are large Tel Aviv: Rishon Lezion (first in Zion) and Petah-Tikva (Gates of Hope).

And now, by the way, it is very easy to distinguish Jewish territories in Israel from Arabic. Enough to look from above: the green strip stretching along the shore is Jewish cities and settlements, the Arabic part almost everywhere brown-deserted color. For some reason, Arabs prefer not to plant anything. And then say – with watering with watering.

. By 1947, the total area "bought homeland" amounted to more than half of the current Israeli territories of Palestine. After the proclamation of the state of Israel in 1948, new kibbuts began to appear along the borders and in strategically important areas. Only instead of the border guards there were dwells and sowed with families. Raise Israeli virgin ride repatriates from around the world.

Big family

Most of the current raised – so-called repatriates in Israel – come either to close relatives who help them settle in a new place, or pass through Ulpan-Kibbutz (school and house): they work in the kibbutz and at the same time study Hebrew. This is the so-called program "First House in Motherland". Those kibbutz who participate in the program receive some benefits and material assistance from the state – the state pays temporary residence of new emigrants.

All repatriates arriving in Israel, relies so-called "Basket of absorption". Absorption is absorption, but in Israel new arrivals "absorb" Very humane: in the mentioned basket – various kinds of cash benefits, tax breaks, loans for rent and buy apartments, paid education, legal advice and retraining courses. Baskets for arriving in Kibbutz – most "Hoided".

Modern kibbutz looks like a boarding house, and internally – to the commune. If the Mral Communes are not familiar with you, imagine the pioneerlage. Corkers and smokeshoes, craft workshops or small factorys to "Do not spoil the picture", located away from housing. In the presentation – neat houses, in English perfect lawns, flowers and dates palm trees. At home, they do not resemble the shacks, in which the first settlers juts. Inside, everything is similar to the suite in a decent hotel. Spacious apartments S "Casina", but very good atmosphere, video and audio equipment, air conditioning, well-equipped kitchen. Water and electricity – free. There are no problems with a kindergarten and school, medical care and nutrition: in every kibbutz, there is a clinic, dining room, school, kindergarten, cinema, swimming pool, laundry, cheap shops, free internet, computers for general use, free transport for personal needs. In some kibbutz, children from 12 years old can live separately from parents in a children’s hostel.

At 16, young people get a separate accommodation from parents, and after school for a year, travel abroad. In the Clubs on the weekend, dancing are set with free, again, a treat. Holidays celebrate the world: with a common table, with concerts of Kibyutnikov artists. Important issues are solved in general meetings – everyone meets often and willingly. In short, Kibbutz is a big family. And good if the family is friendly.

It is difficult here only to individualists and introverts who have an impression of constant look. It seems to them that Kibbutniki is everywhere. But the most difficult thing for an ordinary person is to compete with the fact that everything earned in a common cashier, that is, no matter how much you work, your well-being will not differ from the life of the life of a sore-neighbor, four times a week taking hospital.

Incubator of bright future

Most people work within the kibbutz. Armed with work in the city – for example, teachers, researchers – still give their salary to a common cash desk. Israeli Kibbutz embodied the quasicommunist principle: from everyone according to abilities and everyone – not for the needs even, but simply equally, regardless of earnings. In addition to the main work, everyone should devote some time to its community, having bothering, for example, in the dining room or laundry.

Third generation syndrome

Many such life like. But in recent decades, there has been a problem: from the Kibbutsev, as in the world from the villages, youth leaving. In small, poor kibbutzha, there are mostly elderly people who are ideological or on the household habit of living a community comfortable. However, there is no one to work – and about 40% of such kibbuts exist.

The first generation of Kibbutnikov was enthusiasts, ready for any deprivation for the sake of idea. The second generation has grown on the ideology of the commune, perceiving it as a given. But the third collectivist scheme is already rejecting.

Old traditions "General" life considered the foundation of the kibuzny device gradually die. However, it is not surprising that some utilities did not fit. What was worth only the idea of ​​co-raising children in orphanages. Immediately after the birth of the child passed in the orphanage. Parental joys were limited to the ability to put baby to sleep. And in the order of the queue: if in the group ten children, then having to burn your child made every ten days. Naturally, sooner or later people refused to raise children outside the family, and from mandatory joint trapes. But not this, of course, undermines the foundations. In today’s kibbutzi, retreat from more important principles – do everything with their own hands and minimize private property. Phenic plantations "Dagania", For example, today migrant workers – Chinese and Vietnamese. Russian and Ukrainians work at construction. Surplus housing began to rent (by the way, quite inexpensive), and many kibbuts build something like family hotels, profitable homes and hostels for traveling students. Some kibbutsi engaged in tourist business: keep restaurants, hotels and holiday homes.

Somewhere already thoroughly subsided agriculture from which it all began. Half of products – these are industrial products, including TVs and refrigerators. The kibbutan industry implements in the year of goods more than two billion dollars, a third of them goes to export. The main activity of one of the most prosperous Kibbutsev Israel "Maabroid" – Baby food production.

Nearby is Kibbutz "Beth Zera", Making water purification filters known worldwide. Often the kibbutz are united, as modern production requires significant investment. Livestock complex "Refette Hefer" Belongs to two kibbutzam: "Maabot" and "Halogen". Only eight people work around the complex. Kibbuzny cow, which is serviced by computers and robots, gives 12 thousand liters of milk per year. The device for automatic issuing feed calves by the sensor hanging on the neck of the calf reads the data and determines the required amount of feed. Famous Kibbutz "Yot-Wat" Provides yogurts and other dairy products all Israel and many European countries. Agricultural direction in the activities of Kibbutsev, apparently, will prevail for a long time. Today in Israel about 270 kibbutans, each lives from 60 to 200 people. It is about 3% of the country’s population, but they produce more than half of the entire agricultural products of Israel.

Kibbuzny farm to this day is considered one of the most advanced and productive in the world. However, gradually community principles – the most vulnerable and contrary to the modern consciousness in the ideology of the kibbutz -. For example, not so long ago, Kibyutniki was allowed to build their own homes for their money – and inequality was immediately manifested: someone had money from "Dockabutsna" life, but someone has lived here since its foundation and has no savings – all earned it took in "obshchak".

In the evenings, says our classmate in their kibbutz accepted full membership to gather in the central clearing – something like the Pioneer lineup. Exchange news and gossip begins with choral singing improvised lyrics "Our sweet home Gatikva" (This is the name of the kibbutz – in Russian "Hope"). Looks funny, Igor recognized, but it is a discordant singing it for the thousandth time decides not to leave the incubator of communism for the world of profit and cash payment.

Incubator of bright future

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