Infections, diseases and parasites – what else can be brought from rest?

Scientists assure that traveling to distant countries, especially in exotic, harmful to health. In addition to a banal change of a time zone that confuses «Domestic hours» organism and meetings with snakes, jellyfish and other "Bushcha" Fauna, tourists await a more dangerous and almost invisible enemy – insects.

Some of them carry dangerous diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever, Zika, yellow fever, Chicungunya, and can also settle their larvae in the body.

In general, a holiday can be brought not only good mood, tan and beautiful souvenirs, but also health problems. In this article Tourweek.RU will tell about 10 dangerous infections and diseases after recreation found from tourists who returned from abroad.

Content

1. African MIAZ

What is it: Miaz — This is a larvae of flies. Distinguish: skin (MIAZ RAS or FALLICULAR), creeping / migrating or strength MIAZ of body organs. In the miaz of the nasophacks are affected by the nose, sinuses and throat.

Where can I get infected:

For the development of larvae, heat is important, so the most «Infectious» zones — Southeast Asia and Africa.

In the past five years, outbreaks are most often registered in Africa, South and Central America, in the Caribbean and Galapagos Islands.

Expansion «coverage zones» promoted exports of bananas and exotic fruits.

How can I get infected:

As a result of random swallowing larvae.

Through the eggs flies, which are laying off near the open wound or ulcers. Or directly in the amazed wound, nose, ears.

Through bite of infected tick or mosquito larvae.

In tropical regions — through infected land or wet fabric (if clothes or bed linen were postned for drying).

The most frequent sections of infection — limbs, back and leather head.

How flows:

Hatched larvae hide in the skin or cause inner forms of illness. In place «Implementation» Subcutaneous nodules may form.

Sometimes patients feel pain or feel like larvae move inside fabrics. This behavior is more characteristic of D. Hominis, who have large larvae with external strata of spikes. The same kind can affect eyes, nasal moves, auditory passage. Infection O.OVIS (sheep’s heap) affects the optic nerve and can cause blindness.

How is treated:

The conical shape and spikes of the larva complicate the removal of the parasite from the human body. Anyone remaining causes inflammation or bacterial infection. Extraction is carried out surgically, under local anesthesia. In the treatment of MIAZ, the right hygiene wounds is very important. After extracting larvae, the doctor prescribes local antibacterial drugs.

Internal forms are treated with powerful antiparasitic drugs (for example, ivermectin).

2. Meloidosis

What is it: Infectious disease that causes Burkholderia Pseudomallei. Bacterium lives in the soil and water of the tropical zone. Distributed in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia.

Other names: Whitmore’s disease, Naitcliffa gardener disease, pseudo-dip or «Vietnamese Slow Action Bomb».

Where can I get infected:

In Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, India. As well as on the Philippines and Sri Lanka. Single cases identified in Madagascar, in Niger, Kenya, Iran, Turkey, Panama, Ecuador.

How can I get infected:

Transmitted to man when skin contact with soil. Basic foci in nature — Soil and water (most often ponds, rice plantation, lakes) contaminated by the discharge of infected animals. You can get infected through damage to the skin or mucous meal or respiratory tract. You can only get infected by swallowing or inhaling water / soil particles or with contact with infected water, soil.

How flows:

Often — in the form of a heavy light infection. Tuberculosis-like cavities are knocked on x-ray.

Second option — in the form of severe blood infection. Every year in the world of 165 thousand infected people dies half. If you get into the brain, the pathogen kills a person during the day.

How is treated:

Furious Diagnostics — The disease is similar to «cold». Meloid can manifest three weeks later and resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, in the process of therapy, several drugs are used, the treatment continues month and longer. Meloid vaccines are not.

3. West Nile Virus, Japanese Encephalitis

What is it: Flavivirus infections occurring with the defeat of the central nervous system.

Where can I get infected:

Western Nile Virus «patch» In all Africa, in some parts of Europe, in the Middle East, in Western Asia, in the USA and Australia. Since the appearance in the United States in 1999, the virus spread from Canada to Venezuela. Recent cases of infection were identified in Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Spain.

Japanese Encephalitis is found in China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Nepal, India, Malaysia, Indonesia. As well as in the Philippines, Sri Lanka. Distributed in agricultural areas related to growing rice. Threatens residents of countryside, living near reservoirs or in wetlands.

How can I get infected:

Through the bite of female mosquito and blind.

In China, Vietnam, Europe, the United States, regions with a similar climate, the transfer is seasonal, reaches a peak in the summer and autumn. In subtropics and tropics, the transmission takes place all year round, often with a peak in the rainy season.

From 2015. Cases of infection are registered in Siberia, Romania, Moldova.

How flows:

West Nile Virus — in the form of light influenza symptoms in a week or two after infection. In 20% of cases, the fever of West Nile, Encephalitis and meningitis arise. For them are characteristic: headache, temperature above 38 o C, violation of consciousness, paralysis, coma.

Japanese encephalitis in most cases proceeds like flu. Symptoms manifest after 5-15 days and include heat, headache, vomiting, confusion of consciousness and difficulty in motion. In 1 of 200 cases, a rapid brain lesion and nervous system develops. Death comes in 30-80% of cases.

How is treated:

Specific treatment and vaccine against the Western Nile virus does not exist. In the case of brain lesions, hospitalization and intensive therapy. Japanese encephalitis virus vaccination is recommended for those who plan to live outside the city more than a month, or foreign emigrants. Treatment implies supporting therapy. No specific preparations.

4. Fever Denge

What is it: Viral disease. First mentioned in the Chinese Medical Encyclopedia of the Tzin Dynasty (265–420. N.NS). The first recognized epidemics are fixed in Asia, Africa and North America in the 1780s.

Four strains of Flavivirus detect.

Infection gives sustainable protection against one serotype, and short-term immunity against the rest.

Where can I get infected:

In countries of South Asia, Australia and Oceania, Latin America, Mexico.

The most difficult forms are fixed in Thailand and in the Philippines. In recent years, outbreaks of infection are detected in Brazil, China, Africa, India, in the Caribbean Islands.

How can I get infected:

Through the bite of mosquito Aedes aegypti and to a lesser extent — Aedes albopictus.

The same species of mosquito tolerate Chicunguni viruses, yellow fever and Zika.

How flows:

«Looks like», As a cold or flu, proceeds with pain in the muscles and joints, but quickly affects the liver, kidneys, spleen. After an acute stage, physical exhaustion and depression occurs.

Dangerous lethal complications — bleeding with damage to organs (hemorrhagic fever) or shock syndrome.

Secondary infections occur hard.

How is treated:

Effective antiviral therapy no. Symptomatic treatment. Standard measures are recommended (abundant drinking mode, avoiding Ibuprofen reception, aspirin). In 2015, vaccine was developed, but in graft patients — If they are sick — Risks of complications increase dramatically.

5. Shistosomoz

What is it: Parasitic infection caused by trematode schistosoma. Intermediate owner — Snails living in fresh water.

Where can I get infected:

Endemic disease in 74 countries. Most often found in Africa, China, Indonesia and Philippines. Registered in Thailand, Australia, Cambodia, Malaysia and Laos, in the Arabian Peninsula, Brazil, on the Islands of the Caribbean, in Venezuela, Iran, South China and Suriname. Recent focus was identified on Corsica.

How can I get infected:

Through fresh water. During swimming, washing or transition of the Rodhod River.

Eggs of schistosomes fall into water with urine or feces of infected people. Parasites develop and multiply inside the snails, after which they fall into the water, where they can live about 48 hours. Once in the human body, parasites are growing in adult worms in adults and live in blood vessels of the body. Females produce eggs and schistosomes gradually affect the selection and gastrointestinal bodies.

In rare cases, eggs are found in the head or spinal cord.

Cases of ulceration of genitals two years after the trip in Africa.

How flows:

Systosomal invasion is often preserved and manifested after exiting the endemic area.

Symptoms of schistosomosis are caused by the reaction of the organism on eggs, and not on the worms themselves. If testing is performed before the masonry of eggs, it can give false negative results. For the accuracy of diagnostics after the last contact with contaminated water, you need to wait 6-8 weeks.

Manifestations include Papulay Dermatitis, Ostrieving Fever of Katyama (at the stage of laying eggs and migration of larvae in 2-4 weeks from infection). The aggravation is manifested by the lesion of the brain — confusion of consciousness, weakness, fever.

The number of deaths from a schistosomosis is difficult to assess due to hidden pathologies: liver and renal failure, bladder cancer, ectopic pregnancy caused by schistosomes of genital organs.

How is treated:

Powerful antiparasitic agents are prescribed for treatment (for example, Praziquantel).

6. Shagas disease

What is it: Parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma Cruzi. Also known as «Silent disease». According to statistics, 8 million infected people do not even suspect the presence of a parasite.

Where can I get infected:

In South, Central America, Mexico, Africa.

Cases of infection detected in the USA, Europe, Canada, Japan and Australia. Presumably, the disease fell into other parts of the world with the epigrants.

How can I get infected:

Through contact with insect-carriers («Kiss Klopov») that feed on human blood and deteriorate there on the skin of the owner. Activate bugs only at night. Parasite gets into the bloodstream when a person scratches the item bite. Sometimes the parasite can penetrate the mucous membrane, for example, if feces are nearly with eyes or mouth. Cracops can bite in the field of lips, eyelids and other parts of the face. Hence the name — «Kiss» Claps.

The second way of transmission — from mother to child. Or when overflowing blood, organ transplantation (recent cases in the modern world are rare).

Several outbreaks of recent years have been caused by the use of infectious fruits and sugar cane juice, Asai, Guava.

The disease also transfers the insect of the predan (bug) — inhabitant of southwestern Africa.

Actually, it feeds on larvae, but sometimes it does not refuse to drink a man’s blood.

How flows:

Most often, the first visible signs of infection are lesions of the skin, arising at the place of introduction by Tripanos or the crimson ethuction of the century.

Infection of organs, including the heart, can last decades, often — without any symptoms. In seven of ten cases, the parasite does not cause the owner of harm.

With the defeat of the heart or gastrointestinal organs most common manifestations are: dizziness, fainting, palpitations, chest pain, fatigue, constipation, difficulty swallowing.

Ultimately, the disease is manifested in the form of fatal problems with the heart or intestines. It is estimated that 20,000 people die from Shagas’s disease.

How is treated:

Antiparasitic means (benznidazole, nifurtimox). Both drugs are effective in the case of applied immediately after infection.

In the presence of complications, symptomatic treatment is used. Starting from diets with a high content of fiber or reception of laxative or heartbreaks, ending with a heart with a transfers in case of serious lesions.

7. Worms Taenia Solium

What is it: The largest of the ribbon worms infecting a person. Adults are achieved up to 10 m.

The main cause of epilepsy is considered «poor countries».

Where can I get infected:

Last frequent outbreaks are registered in the countryside of Latin America, in the south and south-east of Asia, in the African regions.

How can I get infected:

Infections, diseases and parasites - what else can be brought from rest

Chervi fall into the intestine in the form of larvae – Cyst. The source becomes non-wood infected pork.

Infected person can infect food with worm eggs in non-compliance with hygiene rules.

How flows:

Worms grow in adult individuals for about 8 weeks. Untreated infection is usually preserved for 2–3 years old.

In infected people can develop visible or palpable subcutaneous nodules.

Disease is manifested by malnutrition, since the worm competes with the owner of food. Parasites migrate through the body, penetrate the muscles, skin, eyes, the central nervous system, which is manifested by neurocystserical (decrease in intelligence, headaches, coordination disorders, convulsions).

How is treated:

Antiparasitic drugs. The output of the larvae is accompanied by inflammation and requires specific treatment: the use of hormones and antiepileptic drugs, increase the dose of antiparasitic agents, sometimes — Surgical intervention.

eight. African tribanosomosis (sleepy disease)

What is it: Parasitic disease caused by the simplest Trypanosoma genus. Two indistinguishable subspecies of the parasite cause either slowly progressive tribanosomosis in the Western and central regions of Africa or more acute tribanosomosis in the eastern and southern countries of Africa.

Where can I get infected:

In Africa. More than 95% of cases fall on Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda.

How can I get infected:

Through the bite of Fly Glossina (Tsetz), which lives in savannah and forests. Muha Tsets bite man and large animals. It is attracted by bright or very dark colors. Hunters, tourists and employees of Savannan and National Parks are subject to the greatest risk. And also those who work with cows, bulls, buffaloes and other large animals.

How flows:

The bite is often painful and develops into a red ulcer (Shankr).

In the first stage, heat, irritability, fatigue, pain in the muscles and joints, the increase in lymph nodes, headache. The second stage is developing a few months after infection and includes drowsiness and confusion.

Symptoms are usually manifested for 1–3 weeks after bite. Death occurs in 4-5 months.

How is treated:

In hospital with special drugs. Within two years, the course of therapy course conducts periodic control examinations, including the spinal puncture. Sleepy disease is deadly with damage to a significant part of the head and spinal cord. Vaccine against trypanosomosis no.

nine. Histoplasmosis

What is it: Histoplasmosis — Infectious disease caused by fungus genus Histoplasma.

Where can I get infected:

Histoplasmosis fungus lives in soil and water infected with a litter of birds or volatile mice. Often — In the cave ecosystem.

Most common in North and Central America. IN THE USA — In the valleys of Mississippi and Ohio. The average incidence at the district level of various states varies from 3 to 39 cases of the disease per 100,000 people. Also, the fungus was found in Costa Rica, Africa, Asia, Australia, in some countries of South America and in Karlovy Vary, to whose caves Migrating Mexican bats.

How can I get infected:

Spores The fungus is in the air and soil contaminated with the litter of birds or bats, so infection is possible when inhaled microscopic disputes or contact with infected water.

How flows:

Immunity most healthy adults resistant to fungus. In children and weakened people, the temperature may rise, appear cough and fatigue. In lung spores, fungus turn into yeast, after which they migrate into lymph nodes and through blood flow to other parts of the body.

If immunity is weakened, the fungus is striking internal organs (disseminated histoplasmosis).

Depending on immunity, the disease kills 25-60% of infected.

How is treated:

Some people have symptoms of histoplasmosis. To treat severe histoplasmosis of the lungs or disseminated form of the disease, antifungal drugs are used (for example, itraconazole). Depending on the severity of the infection and state of human immunity, the course of treatment is from 3 months to 1 year. In the process of treatment, it is important to control the liver condition.

ten. Onchocerkosis

What is it: Second (after trachoma) infection by the frequency of the development of blindness.

«River blindness» Causes the parasite onchocerca Volvulus.

Where can I get infected:

Moska-carrier of the parasite dwells in tropical areas. Lives and breeds close to fast rivers and streams, often — in remote rural regions. Found in 31 countries of Africa south of Sahara, delivered and found in Brazil, Yemen, Venezuela.

How can I get infected:

Through multiple bits SIMULIUM. Flies are active. ONCHOCERCA larvae fall under the skin through a bite. For 12-18 months grow in adults and become noticeable. But it is during this period that females begin to produce thousands of new larvae daily.

Those who work on Earth are most susceptible to the greatest risk, as well as visitors to poor remote regions — Missionaries, volunteers and travelers.

How flows:

Adult parasites can live in the human body about 10–15 years, their larvae — Approximately 12–15 months.

Most parasites live in fibrous nodules under the skin, sometimes — Near the muscles and joints. Larvae can migrate through the human body, occasionally causing an increase in lymph nodes. Most of the symptoms of the ONHCHERCOCHOZ are caused by the reaction of the body on the dead or dying larvae.

ONHCHERSKOKOS CAN CALL DISEASING DISEASES, INCLUDING STRUGITY TERRIT, RAW, CHANGE OF COLOR, Skin Skin or Nodule.

Inflammation caused by larvae in the eye, first leads to reversible damage to the cornea. Without treatment, the disease progresses to constant turbidity of the cornea, which leads to blindness. The second version of the development of blindness — Inflammation of the visual nerve.

According to the Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases, in 2017, 20.9 million people were infected in the world. 14.6 million skin manifestations were revealed. 1.15 million people lost sight.

How is treated:

Before the start of therapy, it is important to exclude infection by other pylyarize parasites (bankcrip, Loa-Loa) — Otherwise, with the use of drugs from online, the deaths may occur.

Recommended antiparasitic therapy (for example, Ivermectin). The medicine is introduced every 6 months throughout the life of adult worms (that is, for 10–15 years) or as long as the infected person has signs of skin or eye infection. Ivermectin kills larvae, but ineffective against adult individuals.

There are work on the successful use of doxycycline, which is appointed together with the antiparasitic drug.

How to protect yourself from infections

  1. In Russia, vaccines from meningitis and Japanese encephalitis are available.
  2. For the formation of immunity about vaccination, it is advisable to bother 2-3 months before departure.
  3. To avoid the Western Nile virus, dengue fever and other transmissive diseases, it is important to consider that mosquitoes and flies attract smells of people and exhaled carbon dioxide. Therefore, to protect it is better to take a repellent with DETA (N, N-diethyl methatholoamide) or permethrine. They are reliably «disguise» smells and protect up to several days.
  4. Potting, swimming or rain often require repeated repellent.
  5. Mosquitoes and flies contact thin clothes. It is better to wear long sleeves shirts and long tissue pants.
  6. Dawn, Twilight and Early Evening — Peak clock for the bites of mosquito-carriers of the West Nile virus. It is better to stay at home.
  7. Tsetz Fly bites the hot day and usually lives in the bushes. When visiting Savannan and National Parks, it is recommended to beware of thickets.
  8. Do not settle down near the reservoirs, in wetlands. Stationary water sources are better covering or removed.
  9. It is advisable to put mosquito nets on the windows.
  10. To avoid parasitic infections — Wear shoes and avoid drinking water from open sources, from under the tap, as well as raw products. Especially — Fish, pork and vegetables.
  11. Asians and Africans try not to drink water from under the crane. We advise you!
  12. Take a sufficient amount of bottled water, antibacterial gel and local antiseptics.
  13. After the trip, it is not superfluous to take a shower and check the whole body for the presence of bites, ticks. If you are not sure of microscopic fauna — In open reservoirs, it is better not to swim.
  14. In caves to prevent water contact, pets, fungus — Wear closed shoes. And better — rubber boots. When entering potentially dangerous caves, wear respirators, gloves. After visiting the cave Wash hands and open areas of the body, rinse shoes.

Under the observance of non-hard rules, rest will go on the planned plan. And most infections will not be terrible.

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