Is it possible to observe how one kind of animal evolves in another?

When we talk about evolution, immediately imagine something global, such as a person who has grown out of a monkey. In principle, of course, right. But in this case, we are talking about the macroevolution associated with the emergence of new types, classes, detachments. That’s just within this framework we can observe little, because before the appearance of the final result should be changed not to change. Nevertheless, new species appear in our days.

So, Janice Britton-Davidian investigated how domestic mice had changed over the past 500 years, and found that during this period, their genome has undergone about nine mutations. And they were as significant as the mutation of the chimpanzee genome in the human genome. Depending on the conditions of habitat and other factors, the house mouse has six chromosomal races. They did not differ from each other, but at the level of the karyotype, that is, a chromosomal set in the cells of the body of one species, the changes were very interesting. For example, in some races on the island of Madeira, the autonomous region of Portugal, a fusion of chromosomes occurred, that is, instead of 24 pairs, it became 22. True, some scientists challenges this moment of speciation, referring to the fact that the merger of chromosomes at the home mouse is the usual phenomenon. However, the fact remains. The formation of chromosomal races has become a small step of evolutionary transformations.

In 2017, Peter and Rosemary Grant recorded the case of the new type of reel. This married couple is engaged in practically all his life reels and speciation issues. Many years watching the birds on the island of Daphne of the Galapagos Archipelago, they noticed that there is a mixture of populations of two species: in the nest sits the Middle Earth Reel Pop Motion and Wall Maple Cactus Earth Reel from Espanyol Island. The wife of Grant found out that the hybrid descendants of these birds are crossed only with each other, they have formed their own species song and specific proportions of beak. Consequently, this is a new type of reels.

Periodically, scientists are trying to bring new types of animals in artificial conditions, and sometimes they manage it. One of the bright examples are the works of our compatriot George Shaposhnikova, who studied TRU DYSAPHIS ANTHRISCI. Most aphids dwell on plants of one kind and even one species, which is largely determined by their food specialization. Nevertheless, sometimes they replace the feed plant, and Shaposhnikov became one of the first biologists experimentally studied this process.

Over the past 500 years, the genome of the homemade mouse has undergone about nine mutations

Is it possible to observe how one kind of animal evolves in another

For scientific purposes, he made a TRU from the familiar plants and placed on another. Moreover, the experiment was taken by the TLA, which feeds on only the juice of one type of plant. In the new conditions, most died, and that, which at least somehow could digest the juice of a new plant, survived and gave offspring. In the future, it mutated. So it was possible to bring a new type of Tly, which was fed on a new plant and did not cross the original view.

There is also a microevolution that occurs inside one species, population or even the body. We observe it often, but at the same time we do not even think that this is evolution. For example, plants that adapt to an increased amount of heavy metals in the city, or the peoples of the North, who do not suffer from infection by opisthorchosis – a disease caused by parasitic flat worms. Such local factors lead to polymorphism of genes and the inclusion of proteins that may be inactive among representatives of other populations of the species. Therefore, a separate group of individuals is formed, that is, there is relative isolation of the population. Subsequently, in the sector of chromosome, which carries a gene encoding the active protein, a mutation may occur, and it, in turn, lead to the formation of a new type.

Separately, it is worth noting a molecular evolution, since it is here that scientists can not only trace the evolution quickly, but also to send it to the right direction. So, for the opening of the evolution of Belkov, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2018 received Francis Arnold, George Smith and Gregory Winter. Before the research conducted by them, the evolution process was not experimentally confirmed. Thus, scientists managed to officially prove its existence. But this discovery has and applied value. Understanding the mechanism and principle of the evolution of proteins in the "test tube", a person can create proteins, including for obtaining new drugs and biomaterials.

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