Is there in Korea "Information Wars"?
In recent years, we, the Russians, faced a new victim – "information wars" TV channels. We no longer surprise us when we are demonstrated that naked alleged prosecutors, then allegedly sick joints of the prime ministers, then allegedly witnesses of the killings allegedly ordered by the mayor of one very large city: in particularly large sizes, this turbid stream is poured on top of us, as well as During the fierce advantage of the next aluminum plant or oil field. Now, probably, every recreation understands that "Uncle from TV" they say about another nastiness at all because they want to convey to the audience the truth. main reason "information wars" – collisions of financial empires and their interests, and "Uncle from TV", practicing their considerable salary, only obediently biting those to whom they were put on all the well-known owners of the TV channels (as well as "Plants, newspapers, steamats"). Russian TV channels are mostly belonging to the notorious oligarchs, fierce journalists are at the same oligarchs on the financial content, and, as the cynical saying says, "who pays the girl, that he dances her". This circumstance and attracts our attention to the matter, about which once before, we did not think much: and to whom, in fact, belongs "free press" and especially "Free television"? I want to tell today today (on the example of Korea, of course).
How well know those of our readers who live or lived in Korea, now there are 4 main television companies: KBS (in two horses – KBS-1 and KBS-2), MBS, EBS and SBS. Names from companies English, which is generally very typical for modern South Korea, in which the language of the main ally plays a special role. In addition, there is a television company AFKN, but it belongs to the American army, broadcasts in English and uses its own network of transmitters, so we will not speak about it today.
The oldest of Korean television companies is KBS, founded back in 1961. KBS channels play the role of Korean "first program". This television company is as if the voice of official Seoul, and it is not surprising that it is entirely belonging to the state (actually, its Korean name and means "Korean state television company"). By the way, KBS is subject to Korean affiliation, the local version "Voices of America". One of the features of the KBS-1 channel is the absence of advertising inserts there (since 1994). However, television – the thing is very expensive. One half-hour Korean series "Telemasters" costs in production, for example, in a round sum: from 50 to 110 thousand dollars. It is clear that this money should be taken from somewhere. In Russia, the money by television companies partly brings advertising, and in part – oligarchs, which in exchange are able to use the channel for their political purposes. Korean style "Braceless" Channel KBS -1 exists at the expense of special "subscription fee", Which all residents of the country, including many of our respected readers, are automatically introduced: it is simply included in the electricity bills. This fee is small, but as they say, "With the world on thread", So in 1996 (I do not have new data) the channel received approximately half a billion dollars as such mandatory deductions. KBS-2, another channel belonging to the same company, somewhat less official and serious. There are promotional inserts, which, in fact, feed the channel.
Few people know that the MBS TV channel for a long time belonged to the same State KBS, being his subsidiary. Created MBS in 1969, and from the very beginning he "specializing" on entertainment and culture. MBS a little more fortified of their neighbors, and entertainment show programs on this channel is noticeably more. MBS control package is again in the hands of the state. The state belongs to 2/3 of the shares, and the rest are distributed among several private owners.
EBS Education Channel until 1990. He was the property of the same state KBS. Now this channel is controlled by the Ministry of Education, but still belongs to the state. It broads it mostly educational and popular science programs. It is easy to guess that the EBS channel is generally unprofitable, but his losses are compensated from the budget, because we are talking about folk education.
From Korean TV companies in the exact sense of the word is only SBS television company, but it does not have one owner. The shares of this station are owned by 29 different corporations. According to Korean laws, in the hands of one physical or legal entity, more than 30% of the shares of the channel or radio station can be located, so that none of these 29 firms have and cannot have a controlling package.
Thus, all television in Korea is state or, in the best (worst?) case – semi-state. Some presence of private companies is noticeable, perhaps only in the cable television market. Is it good or bad? As usual, it is impossible to answer this question unequivocally. On the one hand – bad. To say there, but state control means censorship – not always straight, but always quite real. The authorities have the opportunity to silence the facts unwanted by them, and generally form public opinion "to order". On the other hand, such a possibility is deprived of Korean oligarchs that cannot use television for their political purposes. In addition, state control means that Korean television plays in society some, I would say a stabilizing and soothing role. All those who have been in Seoul are well aware that the Korean television is frivolous cannot be called: a serious tone of speakers, carefully verified balance "Positive" and "negative" in the news, almost complete absence "Stripe" and "Dissected", To which the Russian spectators in recent years are accustomed to that, and, that is especially important, in general, an impartial assessment of the actions of both governments and his opponents. In part in this respect, it resembles the past Soviet television, although Korean programs are generally more interesting than that video products, which was demonstrated on the Soviet TV in times "Late stagnation". In any case, Korean TV viewers do not become involuntary victims "information wars", And the masters of disinformation in Korea find applies to their diverse talents outside the television studios.