IV Egypt Pharaoh Dynasty – Pyramid Builders
The board of the IV dynasty is considered to be the "golden age" of the ancient kingdom (III-VI dynasty). The dynasty itself is often called the "dynasty of the Pharaoh-builders", and the era of the ancient kingdom – the "epoch of the pyramids". And it is not surprising, at that time the most famous Egyptian pyramids in Giza – Heops, Heffe, Micheryina and others were built. It was the time of prosperity, the development of international trade and the world. What, in fact, allowed the pharaohs to spend more resources and time to build cycinic and unique cult facilities, the greatest buildings of the ancient world.
Snofer – the founder of the dynasty
If you are lucky enough to look at the Cairo Museum, pay attention to the unsightly and not very well-preserved statue of the Snofer. On her, the Figure of Pharaoh, cut down in the stone, as if trying to break out of the limestone plate. Rules He Toli 29 years old (by Mannefo), Toli 24 years old (according to the Turin Tsarskoye Papyrus – one of the most interesting ancient Egyptian documents written by a cheeratical letter). Snofra is considered the builder as many as five pyramids, he is also attributed to the first "real" pyramid. The first large pyramid design was built at sunset of the III dynasty, but the stepped pyramid of Joster rather was a modernized Mastabu (an earlier type of burial buildings), which was erected by a few more levels of less square.
In the snowflap, the pyramid of Huni, a pink pyramid and a broken pyramid, a pyramid in Maidun were constructed. However, the founder of the IV dynasty became famous not only by large-scale construction. The first documented certificate of trade contacts of the ancient Egyptians with its neighbors includes the era of his rule. From deciphering the inscriptions on Palermo Stone, scientists became aware of the arrival in Egypt forty courts with the Lebanese cedar. The same source talks about the major military campaign of Pharaoh in Nubia and Teine, the country located on the territory of modern Libya. Judging by the rich trophyam listed on Palermo Stone, military expeditions were clearly successful. On successful wars in the territory of the Sinai Peninsula, the bas-reliefs of Wadi Magcar are reported, on which the king is called the "Winner of Varvarov".
The Pyramid of Cheops
But the most famous building of the IV dynasty and the whole ancient kingdom was the Pyramid of Heops (Hufu, the years of the Board: 2604-2581 BC. e) erected by the son and heir to the Snofra. The pyramidal ritual design of almost 4,000 years old was the highest building in the world, while in 1311 the Lincoln Cathedral was erected, whose height was only thirteen meters more. Back in antiquity, the famous tomb was called a miracle of light. Nowadays, it remained the only one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
It is believed that "Ahet-Hufa", as the pyramid of Hofu Egyptians called, was built about 20 years. However, Egyptologists are still arguing about the date of start of construction. However, the whole history of Egypt is largely built on guesses, assumptions and indirect data. Fortunately, new discoveries are regularly performed, allowing to supplement and clarify the story, finding new, previously unknown facts and artifacts. So, quite recently (in 2014), the sights of Egypt were replenished with new finds. In February, the group of Egyptian and German archaeologists found new fragments of one of the famous colossons of Memnon, and literally after a couple of weeks in Nekropol Dakhshur, located not far from the capital of modern Egypt, found an unknown pyramid of Jedcara Isaei (V dynasty). In the spring of 2016, scientists discovered secret rooms in the seemingly studied along and across the tomb of Tutankhamon. While there is only scanning data that approvers about the presence of metal and organic items in the hidden rooms, but scientists are almost certain that Nefertiti was buried.
Relatively recently, in the middle of the 20th century and later, in the vicinity of Ahet-Khufu, there were pits with seven ancient courts disassembled into parts. The first of the detected boats was called "solar turkey". Almost one and a half decades needed restorer Ahmed Mustafa to completely collect together 1224 parts of the ancient vessel. Currently, a museum dedicated to this boat works from the south side of the pyramid of Heops.
Pyramids Hafra and Menkura
The construction traditions of Hufu continued his son and grandson – Hafra Pharaohs (Hefren) and Mencar (Micheryin). The second largest pyramid of Giza and all Egypt, the pyramid of Hefren, was built in two stages. By the type of construction, Egyptologists came to the conclusion about the weak health of the ruler. The fact is that two stages of construction are clearly visible in the design. At first, it was built "on the ambulance" Pyramidal design- "Blank", distinguished by small sizes. "Billet", apparently, was needed in case the king suddenly dies during construction. And afterwards, since Hafra continued to live, and it was too early to bury him, the tomb was postponed above, completing the construction. The initial tomb after the death of Hefren turned into a storage room with a funeral inventory. It is believed that Hefren belongs to the Sphinx, the oldest of the preserved monumental sculptures of our planet. The features of the sphinx face, as Egyptologists believes, carry portrait resemblance to Hefren.
The very late, the most southern and lowest in Giza – the Pyramid of Micheryina was erected by grandson of Heops, Pharaoh Menkaura. In terms of volume, it is an order of magnitude less than the cyclopic construction of Heops. With this building ended the era of large tobs. Often, the modest sizes of the construction are transferred to the whole civilization, treating them as a sign of decline. However, in the clock church there is a 200-ton monolith, the establishment of which with the "theory of decline" is not very tied and is a real technical feat. In the older times, the pyramid was an outstanding spectacle. The outer walls of the bottom third of the design were covered with red granite from Aswan, the plates from the White Tour Limestone were followed, and the top was crowned with a red granite pyramid. Unfortunately, the facing still in the XVI century melted Mamli.