Jericho (Arich) – The city on the West Bank of the Jordan River is fully controlled by the Palestinian National Administration (PNA). Jericho is located 7 kilometers west of the Jordan River, 12 kilometers to the northwest of the Dead Sea and 30 kilometers north-east of Jerusalem. The city is unique in that it is located 258 meters below sea level. Jericho Square – 59 km², population – 20.4 thousand people. The city is inhabited exclusively by Palestinian Arabs.
Jericho is considered one of the most ancient continuously populated cities in the world and is repeatedly mentioned in biblical texts.
In 10,000-9600 before. NS. On the site of Jericho there were seasonal, and then constant parking of the Natofi hunters and collectors. Natofi culture replaced the culture of the doctor neolithic A – in the vicinity of Jericho were found in the construction of 9500-8500 before.NS. from saman bricks having a round shape. Also found a stone wall with a height of 3.6 m and a width of 1.8 m. The wall was allegedly used to protect against flooding, and the tower, located inside, for religious purposes.
In the Bronze Age, Jericho was a prosperous Khanney city, but about 1550 before.NS. He was destroyed by ancient Jews during the conquest.
Later, Jericho was restored and played a significant role in the Eugene economy. The very first written mention of the city refers to the XII or XIII century BC.NS.
In the Roman period, Mark Anthony presented Jericho Cleopatre, but Augustus returned his Irod, who built his winter palace here. During the Jewish War of 66-73, the city was destroyed and rebuilt with Emperor Adrian again. It is mentioned by Joseph Flavius, Strabo, Ptolemy, Pliny and others. With Constantine I, the Christian Church was a great here, with a bishop headed. Over time, Jericho began to decline. In the VII century, after the country’s conquest, the Arabs settled the Jews, expelled by Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula. During the battles between the Crusaders and Muslims, Jericho was destroyed and lay in ruins up to the XIX century, covered with sand and looking like an ordinary hill. The modern city began to store in the vicinity of the hill.
Excavations began at the end of the XIX century, and at the beginning of the XX century the first significant discoveries were made. The most significant excavations of ancient Jericho were held by British expeditions under the leadership of John Gastraga in 1930-1936 and Ketlin Kenon in 1952-1958. And in 2016, scientists from Great Britain managed to recreate the faces of some people who lived in Jericho 9500 years ago.
Jericho – one of the richest attractions of Palestine cities. No less interesting and surroundings. To fully explore the city, you need to lay on his visit for two to three days and stay in one of the hotels near the Old Town. Tourists who can come to Jericho only for a day, should first visit the Karanttal monastery and excavations of ancient Jericho – the complex Tel As-Sultan.
Monastery Temptation (Quarantal)
Orthodox Greek men’s monastery on Mount Karantal was founded in the IV century. NS. Mountain is identified with the place of temptation of Jesus Christ the Devil described in the Gospels.
All interior of the monastery is cut down in a rock. The temple has two tiers. The lower bed consists of an in-depth cave and altar in the attached site.
On the second floor there is a chapel, arranged in the cave of first temptation – here is a stone on which, according to legend, Jesus Christ prayed during his forty-day post. Now in the monastery lives a monk-hermit, who cares for ancient premises. Tourists and pilgrims come here for the sake of two shrines – a well with "live water" and temptation stone.
Climbing the monastery need from the ruins of ancient Jericho. In order to save strength and time, tourists can climb the mountain on the funicular from the city, the cost of lifting – 60 shekels. The funicular is only before the observation deck, offering a picturesque view of Jericho.
Then you have to go around a hundred meters from serpentine to the monastery itself. Entrance to the monastery free.
Hasmeneian fortress dock
At the top of Mount Karantal, over the monastery of the temptation, is located a fortress built in the second century BC. NS. This is the most ancient fortress in the Valley of Jordan and the Jewish desert. The fortress dock served to control the city and roads leading to crossing through Jordan. It was in this fortress that Shimon was killed – the first king from the Hasmeneian dynasty, and with him – his wife and two sons. The surviving son Shimon Johanan Girkan took the throne and captured the fortress.
The dock fortress had important strategic importance at the time of the second temple, so the king Herod I was a great renovated and completed it. In the time of the Byzantine Board, a monastery was located in the fortress, and in the XII century – the strengthening structure of the Crusaders. At the end of the XIX century, Karantal Mountain was acquired by the Greek-Orthodox Church, and the construction of the temple began on the ruins of the ancient fortress. In connection with the beginning of the First World War, construction was frozen. From the ancient fortress almost nothing preserved, except for the fragment of the aqueduct and water tanks, and the ruins of buildings on the top of Mount Karantal a little over one hundred years. However, this place is popular in both tourists and the Israelis themselves: from here there is a breathtaking view of Jericho, the Valley of the River Jordan, the Jewish desert and even Jordan on the horizon.
You can see the ruins of various eras, it is possible for this, but for this you need to climb Karantthal, which rises 360 meters above Jerichon. It is best to get around the mountain and rising from the Jewish desert. The route is rather light, but those who have a low level of physical training, the rise may seem complex. Be sure to wear comfortable sports shoes and headdress.
Archaeological Park Tel As-Sultan
Tel As-Sultan (Tel Yeriho) – the hill on which the ruins of the most ancient city in the world are located. It was here that the ancient settlements of the 10th millennium were found to our era. Now Tel As-Sultan – an archaeological park with an area of 3.4 hectares, where visitors can see numerous cultural layers of Jericho.
On the territory of the complex there are eight cultural layers that consistently replacing each other:
Muslim, the latest submitted.
Late Eugene, with the debris of the attic dishes of the classic era.
Israeli, to which the house "Hilani" (he is "House of Bludnica Rahav"), houses in the center of the archaeological complex, tombstones, stairs and the exterior urban wall.
Latehanaanese, represented by the finds between the external and internal city walls, as well as ceramic products.
Ancienthanaanese, represented by the ruins of the city with houses, as well as the outer and inner city walls.
The initial layer divided into several periods to which houses under the inner city wall and some bricks arrays in the north-west complex.
Near each location of the complex set plates with a description of the preserved structures and information about their age. One of the most interesting buildings is a stone tower with a height of 8 meters with an internal staircase span of 22 steps, built ten thousand years ago – in the era of the doctor neolithic A. It is believed that this tower is the first such building in kind. Still unknown what function tower. Archaeologists suggest that it served as a astronomical observatory or had social importance.
Across the road from the archaeological complex is the source of the prophet Elisha, who supplied with fresh water ancient Jericho.
The cost of the entrance ticket to Tel AS-Sultan – 10 shekels for adults, 7 shekels for students and 5 shekels for children.
Source of the Prophet Elisha (Elix)
The biblical prophet Elisha (in Hebrew – Elisha) was the faithful companion of the prophet Elijah. With his name, many miracles are associated. Tradition says that one day he saved the inhabitants of Jericho, clearing the water in the damned source. After that, a flowering oasis grew around the source.
And the source, and the oasis at the foot of the hill Tel AS-Sultan have been preserved to the present day and now belong to the reserve zone. Next to the source of the prophet Elisha are located a large park and a center of pilgrimage. Tourists usually stop here before visiting the temptation monastery to dial cool, fresh water and plunge into the stream. Believers Christians consider the water source healing.
House of Bludnica Rahav
In the book of Joshua, Navina speaks of the Bludnice named Raav – a woman of unearthly beauty, which was the mistress of a brothel and accepted all guests. From his guests Rahav knew that soon Jericho was captured and destroyed by Jews. Therefore, when the House of Rahav was interrupted from the enemy army of Jesus Navina, the beauty agreed to cover them, asking for her life in return to her and her relatives. Representatives of the Jericho authorities who focused on the scouts, Rahaw sent on another way, and Soglyadatayev hid under the snops of flax, laid out for drying on a flat roof of the house.
When Joshua’s troops were entered into the city, the entire population was interrupted, except the Raav family. After that, the woman left her "profession", adopted Judaism and married one of the Sis Baldateev – Juda Prince Salmon. Raav is one of the most revered women in Judaism. Presumably, King David – her descendant.
Captured Jericho was completely erased from the face of the earth – only House Raav survived. His ruins were found in a miraculously surviving fragment of the fortress walls of the period and now they are noticeably towers over completely destroyed buildings. Archaeologists struck the fact that the walls of the city collapsed out by opening the invaders the way to Jericho. Through many centuries, the Church of the Virgin Mary was built next to the ruins of the House Rahav.
The House of the Bludnica Rahav, on which almost all guides make an accent, is located on the territory of the archaeological complex Tel Az-Sultan and is one of its most popular objects: Tour groups with guides always stop near these ruins. However, the legend remains a legend, in reality "House Rahav" – the Hittskaya building, also known as "House Hilani".
Ruins of the Palaces Herod of the Great
In the vicinity of Jericho, many Hasmonia palaces were built, three of whom King Herod rebuilt under his needs. Now you can see the ruins of only one of the palaces – the other two are buried under the thick layer of sand and look like mounds.
Partially preserved Palace of Herod, built in 15-10 Gg. to N. NS., Located on the border of Palestine and Israel. His distinctive feature is a rhombid masonry, which was often used in ancient Roman architecture and did not survive to this day practically anywhere in the world. Also here you can see unique concentric baths. In the center there was a table where fruits and wine were served. Warm water poured into the inner ring, and in the external – cold.
For the construction of their architectural complexes, Herod the Great invited the best masters from Rome and Syria – that is why the influence of ancient Roman culture clearly traced in the ruins of structures.
Palace Herod is 2.5 kilometers south of Ancient Jericho. He is not guarded, you can visit it free of charge at any time of the day.
Al-Malika Hisham Palace
The two-storey square palace decorated with mosaic patterns was built during the period of the Board of the Omeyad Caliphate (VIII century. NS.) And, presumably, served as the winter residence of Khalifa Hisham. The territory of the palace occupied a huge area: there were numerous rooms for receiving guests, a bath, a yard with a swimming pool, a mosque, underground halls, warehouses and workshops. Also, the complex was equipped with an extensive sewage system.
The palace of unprecedented luxury was a real miracle of the architecture of the early Islamic period. In this construction, elements of the artistic traditions of the East and West combined. Dozens of square meters of luxury mosaics, beautiful pukko and frescoes have been preserved to this day in primevar. And the mosaic "Tree of Life", adorning the floor of one of the rooms, is considered the most beautiful in the Middle East.
It also surprises the fact that the decorative elements of the palace contradict the canons of Islam: here are images of animals and statues of people, including semi-native figures of women, and on one of the mosaic you can see the Slavic-Aryan symbols.
Excavations on the territory of the architectural complex are still underway, and the researchers consider the Palace of Hisham one of the largest mysteries of the Middle East: there are no mention of the palace or its descriptions in medieval historical and literary texts.
It was established that the Palace himself at the end of construction was partially destroyed by an earthquake and had not been restored since then, and therefore was never used for its intended purpose. At the same time, until the XIII century, the territory of the Hisham Palace was a living settlement.
Now the complex has the status of a museum. Hisham Palace is open daily from 8:00 to 17:00, entry cost – 10 shekels. At the entrance you can see a film about the history of the palace.
Two-thousand-meadle smelter Scheria and the Russian Museum
In the territory of the Russian spiritual mission there is an ancient tree. It is believed that it was at him a tax collector Zak, so that at least from afar to see Jesus Christ. However, the Messiah noted Zakyhei and wished to enter his house, after which the tax collector sacrificed the needing half of his state. According to legend, Zak, subsequently became the first bishop of the Christian church in Caesarea Palestinian, and after death was canonized by the Greek Orthodox Church.
The height of the famous tree – 15 meters, trunk circle – 5.5 meters, and the diameter of the crown – 25 meters. In the lower part of the trunk, you can see the characteristic sailing of the outer layers of wood and the hollow, which indicates the antiquity of the tree. There is a park around the tree, where the botanic professionals managed to restore the flora of the biblical period. Here you can see the excavation of the ancient monastery, presumably belonging to Zakheya, the remains of the ancient monastic complex, as well as the first Russian burials made at the end of the XIX century.
On the territory of the complex in 2011, the Russian Museum was built – President Dmitry Medvedev presented him with the ancient city of the world. Inside the building from white marble, there are exhibitions of photographs, paintings and sculptures of various contemporary authors, there is also an exhibition of archaeological finds made in the excavations of ancient Jericho on an ongoing basis. The museum and park complex are especially picturesquely look at night lighting.
The complex is open from Monday to Saturday from 9:00 to 18:00, Sunday – day off. Entrance to the territory is free.
Canyon Wadi Celt and Monastery of St. George Khoziewit
5 kilometers from Jericho is an amazing beauty gorge – the ancient channel of the Kelt river. In the IV century, our era came here the first monks from Syria came here and settled in the cells that they themselves have grown right in the sheer rocks. After a hundred years, the monastery was significantly expanded, here were Syrian, Armenian, Georgian and Russian monks. The monastery became known both on the Holy Land and beyond. The flourishing of the monastery fell at the end of VI – the beginning of the VII centuries. With the urgent Georgy Hozov.
In 614, Persians who won Palestine got to the monastery. They destroyed monastic buildings and killed many monks. George failed to revive life in the monastery. In the XII century, he was taken by crusaders, but with their departure from Palestine the abode completely empty. Only at the end of the XIX century, the Greek monk Calinicos with the monks of the Svyatogrobsky fraternity was engaged in the restoration of the monastery, which was completed at the beginning of the XX century. Now in the monastery only one monk lives, as well as several Arabs, helping him by housework.
Despite the fact that it is difficult for the monastery to get, a picturesque place attracts tourists from all over the world.
The border between the zones "A" and "C" of the Palestinian National Administration takes place near the monastery of St. George Khoziewita. The monastery itself is located on the territory of the Zone "C". Since the zone "A" is under the control of the PNA, and the zone "C" – under the control of Israel, the road near Wadi Celt ends – the Israelis blocked all the roads to the monastery leading from Jericho. Therefore, you need to take a taxi to the border, then go a little more than two kilometers on foot. You can also order an organized excursion with a guide from Jericho or Jerusalem.
Unlike Hebron, the atmosphere of which is saturated with war and hatred, Jericho is a peaceful city with a benevolent population. Local always with pleasure help tourists, suggest the road. Tourist infrastructure is well developed.
Since the citizens of Israel are denied entry into Jericho, here you do not need to demonstrate knowledge of phrases in Hebrew from the phrasebook: it is better to learn basic Arab words. At the same time, products in souvenir shops of Jericho is designed, before, only on tourists-Israelites – the hostility of Arabs to the Jews here is exclusively a formal character. There are a lot of black inhabitants in the city – descendants of slaves fit into Palestine Turks from Sudan in the XVIII century.
Near the tourist attractions roam the beggars, but they are not aggressive. Prices in cafes and grocery stores are two to three times lower than in Israel, and the food is much tastier. Cheap taxi services will also cost.
Iberichon climate is characterized as a hot deserted. Despite this, there are a lot of green plantings in the city, which is promoted by soft alluvial soils and water sources.
The heat in Jerichon is installed in June, the temperature only falls by the end of September. Rains in the summer months does not happen. And, if in the city of the heat is easily transferred thanks to the trees, walking around the archaeological park with comfort will not work. As in all of Israel, in Jericho, sharply cold at the end of November, and from December to the beginning of March the rainy season lasts. Unlike other cities of Israel, winter in Jericho is not too windy, which makes it one of the most popular winter resorts in Israelis and Palestinians.
The most comfortable weather in Hebron for tourists from the middle strip – from mid-March to the end of May and from late September to the end of November.
Since there is no international airport in Palestine, tourists can get to Palestinian city only through Israel. Therefore, each tourist first need to fly to the airport named ben-Gurion, successfully pass the passport control and get to the capital.
Jerusalem usually serves as a starting point for traveling in Palestine, because part of its territory is under the control of the Palestinian National Administration, and the Arab population is about 40%. All buses to Palestine, which belong to Arab companies, depart from the Green Bus Station bus station, located near Schmemski (Damascus) Gates.
Hoping to see all the most interesting sights of Palestine, many tourists stop in Bethlehem – this is the safest and most comfortable city of autonomy. But this is not the best option: transport links between the Bethlehem and other Palestine cities are not developed very well, because of what a lot of time can go to the search for the desired bus.
To visit the most ancient city in the world, most convenient to stay in Jerusalem, but also from the capital to Jericho can only be reached with transfers.
Green Bus Station Avtostania is located in the Arabic Quarter of the Old Town. From here regularly send regular buses and minibuses to the capital of Palestine Ramalla. One side ticket is within 8-10 Shekels.
On the road station Ramalla, where the buses arrive, you need to ask how to get to Jericho. Arab drivers usually disinterestedly help independent foreigners tourists and remove them to their colleagues. The fare from Ramalla to Jericho – 12-15 Shekels.
From Damascical Gate Treed buses in the small town of Abu-dis (Bethany). Fare – 8 shekels. Private minibuses go to all major Palestinian cities. So, to Jericho can be reached for 12-15 shekels. The minibus stops on the annular intersection near the information and tourist center.
On the car rented in Israel, it is not worth going to Jericho, as Israeli insurance is not valid in the PNA.