Jerusalem. Armenian-Gregorian Church in Jerusalem
Small, in essence, the Armenian community of Jerusalem took a huge niche in his Christian structure. Tourist routes, as a rule, do not pass through the Armenian quarter, but our "walks" would not be fully without familiarizing with the Armenian patriarchate and objects belonging to it. So let’s start a tour with a small historical reference.
The Armenian Apostolic Holy Church has created the conditions for the adoption of Christianity by the Armenian people already in 301, 24 years before it was proclaimed as a state religion of the Byzantine Empire. The first seeds of Christianity on the land of Armenia were sown during the Apostles. Christianity preached the Holy Apostles of Faddia and Bartholomew. They became the founders of the church in Armenia, being led by martyrdom on the command of the Armenian king Sanatruck. After the martyrdom of the Apostle Faddey, his students are awesome, settled at the origins of the Euphrates River (End I – the beginning of the II century). Starting to preach Christ, they managed to turn into Christianity some of the courtesies, for which they are as well as their teacher, martyrdom.
The spread of Christianity was promoted by various internal and external factors, the main of which: 1.Small Armenia was part of Cappadocia Province. Naturally, it moved into the Great Armenia; 2.Availability of Jewish colonies in Armenia. The first preachers of Christianity were taught in those places where the Jewish colonies were (communities), and they were in the main cities of Armenia. Thus, by the middle of the III century in Armenia, there was an organized and recognized Christian community recognized by the Universal Christian Church.
The adoption of Christianity by the Armenian people is dated 301-m. The Armenian king Tredat III (reignifications 287 – 330 g played a primary role.G.) And the first Catholicos of Armenia Grigory Educator (held this position from 302 to 326 g.G.). And the story was as. Returning in 287 to Armenia, so that with the help of Roman troops to regain his father’s throne, Trudat III commits pagan sacrifices. His companion of Grigory, being a Christian, refuses to take part in them. Trudate orders to throw him into a dungeon designed for suicide bumps. At the same time he commands all Christians located within Armenia, arrest, and hiding – execute. At the same time, some Virgin RipSime runs to Armenia from Rome, hiding from the persecution by Emperor Diocletian. TRUIT orders to undergo them, together with 32 associates, martyrdom death. It was 300 year. Their martyrdom produced so strong impression on the king that he was seriously ill. The sister of the king saw the prophetic dream that only the prisoner in the dungeon of Gregory could be healing. He was released. Gregory betrayed the land of the Dav and after a 66-day preaching about the light of Christianity, healed the king. As a result, the king and his whole courtyard accepted Christ. Christianity was proclaimed by the state religion. Saint Gregory An enlightener goes to Cappadocian Caesaria, where is dedicated to the San Bishop. Upon returning to Vagarshapat Saint Gregory, the educator is taking the construction of a cathedral. According to legend, he had a vision: the only Son of God descends to the ground and the golden hammer indicates the place where the Holy Altar should be delivered. Therefore, the erected church was called "Echmiadzin", which translated from Armenian means: "The only beef", t.E. Jesus Christ.
Armenia at this time was a feudal country. The head of state was the king. He was the owner of his central part. Princes (Nakarara), submitting to him, owned their own regions. Saint Gregory The Educator built a hierarchy of the Armenian Church on the same principle, by chaptering every region of bishops, being Catholicos. Thus, the hierarchical structure of the Armenian Church was organized independently, based on local conditions, regardless of the processes that took place in the Roman Empire, where Metropolitanism was established in 325, and in 381 – Patriarchate.
In 354, Catholicos Nerses convenes the Cathedral, entered the history as the first Armenian National Church Cathedral. He reviewed two types of questions:
– Organization of shelters, orphanages, hospitals and t.NS. institutions;
– ban on the pagan rites of burial;
– ban on marriages between close relatives;
– ban on the encumbrance of the people by taxes;
– Decision on the organization of monasteries and schools;
– Streamlining liturgical issues.
– Condemnation of the Arianism, who denied the divinity of Christ.
In 387, Armenia was divided into two parts, departed to Byzantium and Persia. Armenia sympathies belonged to Byzantium.
Archimandrite Mesrop Mashtots in 406 creates an Armenian alphabet. The first translated proposal: "To know the wisdom and instruction, understand the saying of the mind" (parables 1/1). Transfers and creating original literature occur.
For many years, Armenians fought with Persians for the right to confess Christianity and finally received it in connection with the signing of the Narssakian peace treaty in 484. On this excursion to the story, we will finish and return to Jerusalem ..
Armenian Quarter – one of the four quarters of the Old Town. It extends between the tower (Fortress) David at the Yaffian Gate and the Zion Mountain, touching the Jewish Quarter. It exists from the IV century n.NS., In all periods of the history of Jerusalem. It is believed that in the city there are more than three thousand Armenians, most of whom professes Orthodoxy, a minority – Catholicism and only read by Protestants, due to missionary activities of the British.
In the center of the quarter is the building of the Patriarchate and its most important institutions. You are celebrated decorated, heavy iron gates with an inscription in Armenian: "… these gates are built on the initiative of Patriarch Krikor in 1646". You can visit the library built in 1929 for funds donated by the Armenian millionaire-patron of Gulbikyan (it consists more than 30 thousand. books), typography and, most importantly, the museum, the exposition of which shed light on the centuries-old Armenian history. Here is the spiritual seminary, some of whose listeners speak Russian and can be happy to chat with you. And finally, two churches that we need to visit.
Church of St.Jacob
The church is erected in memory of the apostle.Jacob. And in honor of another.Jacob, but what? – About this in order.
Jacob, Son of the Zauli and Salome, Brother John (Evangelist), was one of those Galilee fishermen, whom Jesus personally called for the preaching of the Gospel. He is one of the three to whom the Lord preferably opened his divine secrets.
After the crucifixion and ascension of Jesus, and the Descent on the Apostles of the Holy Spirit, Jacob preached in Spain and in other European countries. After which he returned to Jerusalem, preaching Christ. It is clear that it caused dissatisfaction of the Jewish priests, who turned to the king of Irod Antipa (son of King Herod of the Great I inherited by the time after the death of the father, a quarter of the kingdom, tetrarchy) demanding to execute Jacob. "At that time, King Herod raised his hands on some belonging to the church to make them evil. And killed James, brother John Sword "(" Acts "12: 1/2). Thus, Jacob became the first of the apostles, executed for their faith.
In accordance with tradition, the church stands on the spot of his execution. When you enter it internally, you can view the place where the cut-off head is buried. According to one of the versions, his associates took the body to Spain and ran into the Spanish city of Santiago de Compostell. In the 9th century, Pope ranked sv.Jacob to the face of saints, and the city and place declared the third by meaning after Jerusalem and Rome. St.Jacob became the patron of Spain, the patron saint of warriors, which was considered those who saved Spain from Mavrov. During the crusades, he was called Santiago than and explained the origin of the city name.
The church is devoted to another.Jacob – Brother Jesus by Rodation. He held a special place among the apostles, t.To. became the first bishop of Jerusalem. This position imposed on him a special responsibility, t.To. Him came to the Messengers of God from various countries with reports about the success of the Gospel Protection and to solve many other tasks. He first put the foundation of the rally and on the suggestion of the Holy Spirit made up Divine Liturgy. It can be said that he was the first patriarch of the New Testament.
Christian tradition unanimously recognized the Holy Brother of the Lord Righteous. For his lifestyle, a piety he was respected so much that he stayed on his throne in the Bunlet city of about 24 years. The Holy Brother of the Lord suffered under the high priest of the Anan (the son of the high priest of the Anan of the Pontius Pilate) on the 96th year of his godly life and around the 24th year on the Ascension of the Savior. Jewish historian Joseph Flavius so writes about it in his book "Jewish antiquities": "Anan, imagining that now it is a convenient time for him, convenes Sanhedrin judges, leads to the brother of Jesus, called Christ, Jacob named him, and some others, It takes guilt on them, as if on the criminals of the law, and betrayed with stones ". Jacob died, repeating the prayer of the brother and the gentlemen of his Jesus Christ: "Lord, let them go to this sin, do not see what you do!".
The holy place was delivered by the Byzantine Church, from which memories and few remnants remained. Seriously we can only talk about the crusaders churches in the XII century above them and, of course, about the modern building. In the church leads a richly decorated with wooden carvings, preserved from the XVIII century. Opposite you, in the eastern part of the basilica, are 3 altars. Central, highest, dedicated to.Jacob, brother of the Lord; right – John the Baptist (Preporter), and the left – the Virgin Mary. Near the altar there are two chairs. The one that is more comprehensive (right) is intended for the patriarch, and the one that is rich (left) – for the Spirit of St.Jacob whose body is buried here. This chair is used only once a year, Patriarch, on the day of commemoration.Jacob. In the airports adjacent to the basilica there is a number of chapel: dedicated to.Makarius – Bishop of Jerusalem Period of the rule of Emperor Konstantin I Great; Chapel of the Armenian Saint Menes, Capella.John (we mention his name, sounding in English, like Saint James), Capel.Stephen (in the past), central entrance to the church, which existed until the XVII century, Capella Echmiadzin, porcelain plates of the XVIII century, brought here from Turkey, depicting scenes from Jesus’s life, and built on the altar stones taken with Sinai, Tavor, from Jordanian Valley and from the Temple of the Holy Sepulcher. In the courtyard surrounding the building of the Church, the burial of various outstanding people took place in the past, as they say, those or other inscriptions on the tombbobs.
In the depths of the quarter there is another, which represents interest to us, the Church of Angels. It was built in the period of the Crusaders over the foundations of the structure determined by the tradition as the house of Anan (Hanana), the testa of Caiafa, which was in the period of condemnation of Jesus high priest. In the courtyard there is an olive tree to which Jesus was tied before he was allotted for interrogation to Caiafe. And the angels closed their faces in order not to see the suffering of Jesus and bullying him.