Jerusalem. Dormition Abbey and the church
The first church, built on Mount Zion, was dedicated to the events that took place here: the Paschal Supper of Jesus and the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles at Pentecost. "Holy Zion» – «Hagia – Maria Sion», a name it received in the Byzantine period. The fate of all the churches of Palestine is so well known from the chronicles that I do not see the need to bring the scheme here, but I note that the history of our church only in some details different from all the others, until the end of the XIX century, when German Catholics, in the face of the Order Benedictine, managed to acquire the land, with the mediation of Emperor Wilhelm II during his historic visit to Palestine in 1898. Since that time, the church belongs to the German Society of the Holy Land, which is the Archbishop of Cologne President.
Church changes its name. There begins revered place Assumption with crypt where the stone is mounted, on which it rested (in accordance with the tradition). Recall that the "Dormition" – a Latin translation of the word "Assumption".
The main architect of the project, conceived as a model of Carolingian Cathedral of the Aix la-Chapel, became Henry Renard from Cologne. Stylistic features of church architecture of the Abbey of the Dormition unusual. They combine elements of Byzantine and modern Muslim style, both in general and in detail. Through the cozy courtyard visitor enters into the interior.
View covers the whole basilica, only later allowing it to start a detailed examination. Before us is the central figure of the apse: Our Lady Queen of Heaven, in which the hands of Jesus in all his majesty and glory. The basic idea of design is the embodiment of the celebration of the Universal Church, as predicted by ancient prophecies. Eight images of the Old Testament prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Isaiah, Micah, and Malachi, placed under the Virgin with the Son, voicing that has become an aphorism, Augustine Cathedral phrase: "The Old Testament in the New opens the New the Old lies". Illuminated by light during the service, the altar as if it raises this group to heavenly height.
From the altar on the semicircle, six chapels are diverged, which must be listed. Let’s start from left to right:
Capella dedicated to St.Bonifation. Benedictine Archbishop entered the history of Christianity as the Holy Martyr and the patron saint of Germany. He was, beyond any doubt, one of the key figures of his era. Bonifami was born at the beginning of the 70s.G. VII B. in England. When baptism received the name Winfrid. Already at the age of 7, he was given to raising the monastery, at the age of 30 ordained to the priest, and in 40 years left England to start his missionary activities in Europe, in general, in Germany, in particular. May 15, 719, he was adopted by Pope Gregory II and received a diploma confirming his missionary authority, under the name of Boniface. In 722 g. ordained in San Bishop. It was the first case when a representative of antiques was derived to a similar level. Combined the students who became in the future of his followers. Two of them are depicted next to him in Chapel. On June 5, 754, Bonifami was martyred by pagans when the confirmation rigging. Ultimately, his remains were buried in Fulda Abbey. Since 1874, Pope Piy IX distributed reverence.Bonifation to the entire Catholic Church.
Capella in honor of St.John the Baptist was erected at the expense of the Order of Maltese Knights. It does not require such a detailed description, t.To. The image of John the Baptist (Forerships) is known to all people interested in the history of Christianity. We only note that John is depicted in a chapel, as a preaching on Jordan and pointing to Christ: "Here is the Lamb of God, who takes on the sin of the world" ("from John" 1:29).
In chapel of St.Joseph, the wrap of the Virgin Mary, depicts the ancestors of Jesus in accordance with the chronology given in the Gospel "from Matthew". Capella is donated by the church Malthyanian Order of Silesia. Plots of reliefs created by Jerusalem artists Sarah and Shimon Medina, easily recognizable. This is: "The Birth of Jesus", "Flight of the Holy Family in Egypt" and "Death.Joseph ".
Caelena Cologne is the first to right from the altar. Presented on the occasion of the consecration of the church, it is mainly devoted to three wrappers, prophetically predicted the birth of the Messiah. According to the existing tradition, their relics were transferred to Cologne Cathedral and buried in it. Since that time, they became patrons of Cologne. Sons of bishops, saints, cartridges, also depicted in Chapel, hold various models of churches, which were built with their assistance.
But on the personality of sv.Willibald, who is devoted to the following chapel, is worth stopping. Chapel is donated by the Bavarian pilgrim society. Besides.Willibald held a large place in the formation of missionary activities in Europe, he possessed literary abilities and outstanding observation, which allowed him to leave bright evidence of his long pilgrimage on the Holy Land. Being not only a companion, but also a relative.Bonifation, he took his place after the martyrdom of the saint. The power of St.Willibald is stored in the Cathedral of Eichstadt.
And finally, the chapel of St.Benedict, which the monks of the Benedictic Order themselves. Western Monastic Father.Benedict was born in Nurcia, in the Kingdom of Lombardy in 480 g. (died in 543 g.). For several years he was a hermit, and then founded in 529. Monastery in Monte Cassino, where he wrote his charter, which became the basis of Western monastic. In the charter, he codified the order, formed the basis of the monastic being, which was determined by three vows for all those who took the victory: obedience, humility with life in the monastery and change habits. Gradually the charter spread and suppressed all the others. "Pray and work" – these words you can determine the essence of the charter.Benedict. Capella is placed the statue of Saint, holding a book in the hands, on which it is written: "My son, here is the Charter, for which you have to serve". In 672 g. The power of St.Benedict was reburied in the Abbey of Saint-Benua, and the Saint himself became the patron saint of France.
In the middle of Nici Chapels there is a cross.Benedict, consisting of crossed abbreviations translated into Russian so: "The Holy Cross will be my light – do not give a snake to be my driver". Reliefs around the Cross depict wonders and events from the life of St.Benedict.
Special attention deserves mosaic gender. Home Idea: Action Words of the Lord in space and time. In the very center there are three rings with the words: "Holy! Holy! Holy!", Representing the Slavs of Serafimov to the Lord (Isaiah 6: 3). In Christianity, they symbolize the trinity: God Father, the God of the Son and the Holy Spirit. This center surround three more rings: with the names of four large prophets, twelve small and zodiac signs. The whole space is permeated outgoing from the Divine Center rays. They seem through different periods of history in which the energy of the word has extended special activity. Under the floor is a crypt in which the sacred stone is located on which the Virgin Mary. In my presentation, there is also a certain mystical connection here: Heaven seems to call on Madonna in his kingdom.
Let’s go down down. In the center of the room there is a statue of the Virgin, resting on the stone, determined by the tradition of topics on which mustopa Maria. On the dome of the Baldakhina, the covering sculpture is depicted by Jesus Christ, calling her mother in his Heavenly Kingdom phrase: "Stand up, my beloved, my beautiful, go out! My Blueberries in the Gorges of the Rocks under the Knee’s Blood "(Song Song 2: 13/14). In the medallions surrounding the dome, there are images of six Old Testament women’s images: Eve, Miriaam (Moses sisters), Yael, Yudifi, Ruth and Esther. They once again establish the connection between the Old and New Testaments, their continuity.
Sacred ADR surround six altars, gifts of various countries: Austria, Brazil, ivory, Hungary, Venezuela, USA. They depict their saints and apostles and them, of course, have their own national stylistic features. The chief altar is dedicated to the sacrament of Assumption: on the fresco, a group of apostles surrounding the body of the Virgin, and Christ, whoars her soul on the sky. As well as the current church and its predecessors. Pole under the altar – the balance of the Byzantine column.
At the entrance to the church, you did not pay attention to the fact that right in front of you was the door leading to. a cafe? Did you celebrate a cafe in the church somewhere? – In this – like appropriate, t.To. It hints at the place where Easter meal of Jesus took place.