Jerusalem (Jerusalem) – City and major tourist center in Israel, located in the Jewish mountains at an altitude of 650-840 meters above sea level. Through Jerusalem passes a watershed between the Mediterranean and Dead Seas. Square of the city – 125 kV. km, population – about 866 thousand. human.
Jerusalem is considered a sacred city of Jews, Christians and Muslims. The old town, which is inside the fortress walls of the XVI century, is listed on the World Heritage List of Threat. In 2017, Jerusalem officially recognized as the UN capital of the state of Israel.
Jerusalem is one of the oldest cities in the world. Over five thousand years ago, the first settlements on Mount Ofeve appeared. In all the time of its existence, the city was 23 times subjected to depositions and 52 times – attacks. Jerusalem constantly conducted war, as a result of which the city or conquered by new owners, or was retained by the previous. Once, Jerusalem belonged to both Egyptians and Canaanam. However, in the 10th century BC. NS. The city captured the Jews led by King David.
Soon Jerusalem became the capital of the Israeli kingdom instead of Hebron. Tsar David Rules in Jerusalem 33 years old, after which the power passed to his son Solomon, built the first temple.
However, historians have no evidence confirming the real existence of David, Solomon and the Israeli kingdom. This period in the history of the development of Jerusalem has not yet been studied.
It is known that during the first temple of Jerusalem was the capital of the Jewish kingdom, after which it was captured by Babylonians. Part of the inhabitants of the city were killed, many hijacked into slavery in the Babylonian kingdom, and the remaining fled to Egypt. The temple was destroyed.
The period of the second temple began with the conquest of Jerusalem by the Persians and the beginning of the construction of the new shrine of the Jews. Later, the Persian Empire conquered Alexander Macedonian and established control over Jews. During his reign, Jerusalem flourished. After a few centuries, Judea moved to the Hasmeneian kingdom, and in 37 BC. NS. Jerusalem was captured by Herod the Great.
Under Herod, the city has grown significantly, and its economy intensified – mainly due to pilgrims from the whole empire who wanted to pray in the new temple rebuilt by the king. But the Jewish people hated the king for the cruelty and the constant insult of the religious feelings of the Jews. A cruel king with pride demonstrated the temple with influential guests from the Roman Empire to make a proper impression on them. In 4 to n. NS. King Herod died, and the power moved to his descendants.
A few decades later, the first Jewish war happened, completely destroying Jerusalem, and with him – and the temple of unprecedented beauty.
On the ruins of Jerusalem, the Romans conquerors built a new city and gave him the name Elija Capitolina. Town planning principles of the period are preserved in the old town to the present day.
Wars for Judea did not stop, the Romans changed the Byzantines, and Arabs came to Jerusalem in the VII century. In the Middle Ages, their destructive actions in relation to the Christian shrines laid the title of cross campaigns. After the short Board of Crusaders, Jerusalem again was conquered by Muslims.
In the XVI century Palestine came into the Ottoman Empire. At Sultan Suleiman I magnificent started active construction in Jerusalem. Palestine belonged to Ottomans until the 20th century, so in urban architecture, their influence is clearly traced.
When the British mandate was installed in Palestine, in Jerusalem, as in other cities of the region, conflicts between the Arabs and Jews began. And even after the formation of an independent state, Israel in 1948, the tense relations between representatives of the two denominations remain: Jews consider Jerusalem with their city, and Arabs – their own.
The main attractions of Jerusalem, of course, are religious shrines. Despite the daily huge stream of tourists, they still retained the spirit of antiquity. It is for the sake of their visits to visit, tourists are ready to defend the hourly an hour on passport control in Ben-Gurion, and if not lucky, then a few hours to sit in the room of additional inspection. And also say that if you make desires in the holy places of Jerusalem, they will certainly come true.
Wall of Tears
Crying wall – the foundation of the western wall of the second temple, built by Herod Great in 516 to. NS. and destroyed by the Romans in 70. NS. Its length – 485 meters. To date, the Wall of Crying is the main shrine of the Jews of the whole world, since this is the only surviving part of the temple. It is believed that here you can feel the Divine Presence.
Jews themselves and call their shrine western wall. The wall of crying her mockingly nicknamed Arabs, seeing, as day after day, representatives of unfriendly denominations came here to pray and cry for the destruction of the temple. However, over time, a fragment of once a giant religious building began to be called a cry of crying in many languages of the world.
Most of the wall is hidden behind the Arab living houses – only 57 meters remained unresolved, and it was they who became the main shrine of Judaism. Wall of crying is divided into two halves: men’s (left) and female (right). Jews come here to read prayers at certain hours, but this holy place is open around the clock for everyone. Anyone, regardless of religion, can write its most intimate desire on a small block of paper and put it between ancient stones. In addition, the Mail of Israel has the delivery service "Letters to God" to the Watch Wall.
You can visit the wall of crying only in modest clothes, women must be closed and the neckline zone, and men must wear a headdress or take a disposable kip.
It is better to go to the wall of crying alone, without fun companions.
Before going to the wall, you need to wash your hands in the washbasin on the square, and then try to interrupt the stream of your own thoughts: the true desire here is formulated by itself.
Near the wall you can spend how much time you like, but you need to leave strictly back forward.
No need to be photographed near the wall in the "prayer" pose and, especially, to do allegedly funny selfie against the background of praying Jews – this is an insult to the feelings of believers.
To go to the Wall of crying, you need to skip your things through the scanner and go through the metal detector frame. No tickets to buy no need – a visit to the shrine free.
Temple of the coffin of the Lord
The famous temple is the pilgrimage center of Christians of all denominations and one of the key tourist objects of Jerusalem. On Calvary, where there are alleged places of crucifixion and burial of Jesus Christ, in 325. NS. A church was built. Already at that time, the temple was a huge complex of various structures: Mausoleum, Basilica with crypt, peristyle courtyards. The facade of the church building was richly decorated with marble and mosaic.
In the VII century, during the invasion of Arabs, the temple suffered badly, but he was restored by his ministers. In 1009, Muslims destroyed the Temple, Basilica and many other structures were completely destroyed. Under the Emperor, Constantine VIII began restoration work, but the new temple looked much poorer his predecessor. In the same period, the news about the destroyed church of the Holy Sepulcher reached Europe, which marked the beginning of crusades. In the crusaders, the temple was partially rebuilt.
In the XVI century, the main shrine of Christians suffered from the earthquake, and in 1808 a strong fire took place in the temple. The facade of the building, preserved to the present day, was built in the first half of the XIX century, but inside the fragments of buildings as crusaders and the sculptors of the Renaissance.
The temple belongs to at the same time six confessions of the Christian Church: Greco-Orthodox, Catholic, Coptic, Syrian, Armenian and Ethiopian. Since disagreements often arose since the founding of the temple between denominations, the only key from the public entrance for more than 800 years is kept in the Muslim family of Judeh-al-Al-Husseini – so he ordered Sultan Salah Ad-Dean, who captured Jerusalem in 1187. Since then, the key is transferred to the Judeh Al-Husseiny family from generation to generation, and every morning at 4:00 keeper keys sits on a shop near the temple. However, the ancient castle opens another Muslim – a member of the Nesube family. Since 637, Nusube is officially considered the keepers and the guardians of the temple.
Meanwhile, due to disagreements between confessions, 250 years ago, an unusual artifact appeared in the temple – a wooden staircase, standing on the cornily near the right window of the facade. The cornice belongs to the Greek-Orthodox Church, and the window itself – Armenian, while in the temple it is impossible to move and change without agreement of all six denominations.
To get around all the inner temples of the architectural complex, it is worth come here at dawn. And you need to remember that the church of the Mernel is not a tourist facility, but the main shrine of the Christian world.
Entrance to the church of the Merry is completely free, but in some of his parts of worldly citizens are not allowed.
This street, at first glance, does not differ from dozens of other streets of the old city of Jerusalem: its main "attractions" – countless trading tents, cheated sellers, wires of wires, dilapidated arches and endless flow of tourists. But, according to legend, it was through this street twenty centuries ago a godway of Jesus Christ took place. On Via Doloryozo, there are 9 out of 14 stops, which Christ made along the way on Calvary, the remaining 5 – in the church of the Mernel of the Lord.
The route for which thousands of pilgrims pass daily, begins from the Madrasa Al-Omariya. It is believed that at this place once there was a fortress, where Pontius Pilate made a trial of the Christian prophet. Pilgrimal route according to Via Dollahos, ending in the Temple of the Holy Sepulcher, was organized by Franciscan monks in the XVI century. Now all stops are marked by Roman numbers, and other religious objects are used as a landmarks: