Jerusalem. Via Doloryozo and the Temple of the Merry Coffin
Billion nine hundred million. So many people on our planet believe in Christ. The dream of the overwhelming majority of Christians is the desire to visit those places where he was born, preached, was crucified, resurrected and ascended into his heavenly kingdom.
Pilgrimage was born already in the first centuries from the Nativity of Christ, but stable, massiveness it found only when the crusaders created a base for this. And the number of pilgrims exceeded the most bold assumptions. The question of the need for the formation of those traditions that was not previously faced. So, by the XIII – XIV in.v., The sorrowful (cross) route was born the way of Jesus, called Via Doloryozo.
Initially, he included only those places that were mentioned in the Gospels. Then, in advance by speculation and legends, he finally became the one that he is today: a route that marks 14 stops (stations) on the path of Jesus Christ from the court to the place of his crucifixion in Calvary.
Every Friday at 15:00 the next thousands of Christians impose on the symbolic cross of Jesus and carry it from the Franciscan monastery, put on the site of the Bichyania of Jesus, to Calvary, on the top of which he was crucified. Let’s go with them and let’s call these stations by the names they received in the process of formation of tradition.
First Station – Pretorium
Here was one of the residences of the Roman prefect, where he conducted a court over the accused. She was located on the territory of the fortress of Anthony, from which today nothing has been preserved. On the spot, located not far from the lion gate of the Old Town, is located in N.v. Muslim women’s school, the entrance to which is prohibited.
Second station – Beach and crossing the cross
Restore events. Crucifixion on the Cross, according to Roman law, was preceded by the beat. Pilate ordered his beat "easily". Several executions (LICTOR) struck off from all sides. Their beat (Flagellum), which presented belts with sharp, bone or lead balls in them, crashed into his body and picked up to blood, the jet of the dust area. And so far the carpenters ended the manufacture of the cross, the warriors came up with the fun "King Judea": Throw on Jesus rags of a red raincoat on Jesus, wrapped on the head of a barbed thorns branch "and spit on him, and, taking the reed, beat him on the head" ("From Matthew" 27:30). And then they laid the cross and the procession went to his last path of suffering on the road to redemption.
In this place in the XII century, the crusaders erected the church. Almost completely destroyed by the middle of the XIX century, it was transferred to Franciscans in 1838. Egyptian ruler Ibrahim-Pasha. The earthquake of 1927 caused damage to many buildings in Jerusalem, including this church. It was decided to restore. She was entrusted with an antonio Barlotszi outstanding Franciscan architect (see him "walk" № 24). The architect decided to complete the demolition of the old building.
The newly rebuilt chapel is a single-key basil with a dome over the altar part. As in all temples a.Barlotzi, it is stylized under Byzantine Golden Mosaic. The entire inner hemisphere of the dome is occupied by a huge thunder crown. A.Barlotzi makes us eyewitnesses of death torture, through which Jesus passed. Without flour, without suffering – there is no victory over evil, and, therefore, there is no salvation. Which is indicated, translucent through the spikes and needles of the crown, bright stars, the symbols of victory, which the Savior won with his cross and resurrection over sin and death. This mood is saturated and stained glass in the choirs, the plots of which: (left – right) "Pilate washes hands", "Crossing Christ" and "Liberation Zaravva" (Piccyrini stained glass work on the sketches of the artist Cambelotti). To the building of Capella Barlotzi intended to attach a high, square bell tower, but because of the lack of money, his plan was not realized.
Excavations 1901-1903., Implemented on the site of the current courtyard of the monastery, also revealed remnants of almost square in terms of three-fruined medieval chapels, in which four powerful columns supported the dome over an ancient Roman base, called a lithostotrosposom (literally: "Stone paving"). This place the tradition determined the fact that Jesus was removed from the fortress to the courtyard. Over the foundations of Capella, a new church was set, which is called the church or a chapel of condemnation.
Constructed by the monk-Francissian Velatlain Gerlich Mandelle (in 1903 – 1904.), she does not pretend to possess the high artistic advantages that her neighbor of the Church of Bichyania. But she also has its own functions: the keeper of material evidence of the Roman period (the remains of the plates of the exterior yard of the Pretorium) and the mystical presence of the heroes of the events unfolding here.
And finally, a few words about the Franciscan Museum located here. This is the center of the spiritual and theological faculty "Studium Biblicum Franciscanum", whose activity we are obliged to outstanding discoveries in the field of archeology of the Holy Land, biblical history and theology as a whole. Museum is open to visits. It has the most interesting exposures with exhibits collected from all excavations produced in Franciscan objects.
Church of the Bacheuria and the Church of Condemnation – Order of Franciscans. Chapel of the Blate CHURCH OF THE FLAGELLATION AND CHURCH OF THE BLATE
Address: P.O.Box 19424, Jerusalem 91193, Israel.
Tela.: 972-26-282936; Fax: 972-26-894519.
Location: Old Town of Jerusalem.
How to get: From Schhem or Lion Gate of the Old Town.
Spring-summer period: 08:00 – 12:00 and 14:00 – 18:00;
Autumn-winter period: 08:00 – 12:00 and 13:00 – 15:00.
The entrance is free.
Additional information: toilet in the courtyard of the monastery.
Franciscan Museum. Studium Biblicul Franciscanum
Watch all data in previous information. Visiting hours: 08: 00-12: 00.
In accordance with the prior arrangement, you can agree on the monastery. The entrance is free. Museum information can be obtained on the website of Israeli museums: Ilmuseums.Com
Between the II and III stations are facilities possible for visiting: Litostrotros. Monastery sisters Zion.
Lithostrotos. Sister’s of Zion Monastery
Open: 08:30 – 12:30 and 14:00 – 16:30.
paid entrance. Tel.: 972-26-277292.
Church of Sion sisters "Ecce Homo". Sister’s of Zion Church " Ecce Homo"
In the spring-summer period: 08:30 – 12:30 and 14:30 – 17:30;
In autumn-winter period: 08:30 – 16:30. Sunday – closed.
The entrance is free. Tel.: 972-26-282445, 972-26-277292.
The third station is the first fall of Jesus
At this place, Jesus fell the first time on himself. At the crossroads of Via Doloryozo and Ha-Guy, there is Capella (belongs to the Armenian Catholic Patriarchate) above the doors of which the relief is placed with the image of the falling Jesus (the work of the Polish sculptor Tadeusch Zelinsky).
Note: The chapel on the route is usually closed. You can visit them on Fridays at 15:00 during the procession or in accordance with the prior arrangement.
The fourth station – the meeting place of Jesus with her mother
Virgin Molina Pilate about Pardon. But unsuccessfully. I managed to overtake the procession and stood here in a sorrow. Over the foundations of the Byzantine Church, Armenians Catholic was delivered in 1881. New Church of Our Lady of the Great. During the construction period, the Byzantine mosaics were discovered, in the center of which traces of the soles of the sandals of the Virgin Mary were preserved.
And the relief above the door, depicting the meeting of the mother with his son, is made by the same Master Tadeusha Zelinsky, who portrayed the falling Jesus on the III station.
Fifth Station – Help Simon Kirenine in the Cross
"And forced a passing some kind of Kirenyanin, Simon, Father Alexandrova and Rufov, walking from the field, carry his cross".
From Mark, (15:21).
So Simon, who accidentally passed by, hit the story. And Jesus, leaning on a stone, left in it a deepening, to which all pilgrims are inflated with trepidation. In addition, there is a house nearby "evil rich". Remember the parable of Jesus about the richer and Lazar? ("From Luke" 16:19). So it happened here. So determined the tradition.
Sixth Station – Meeting with Veronica
Tradition attributes this house.Veronica, who gave out the aphased face of Jesus with a handkerchief, as a result of which he began to possess healing qualities. History acquired incredible popularity, and from time to time again and again falls on the pages of newspapers and magazines. Has a huge bibliography, which is not possible. The station is marked by a column that has accommodated in the building. There is an upper church and crypt, to the restoration of which architect Antonio Barlotzi was involved in 1953, which indicates the meaning of this place for the Christian tradition.
Seventh Station – The Second Fall of Jesus
The place is marked by the Church located in the use of Catholics. The tradition determines that it is above the threshold of the vessel, which stumbled Jesus.
Eighth Station – Appeal of Jesus to the Dzhemakhs of Jerusalem
"And there was a great many people and women behind him who cried and sobbed about him. Jesus, contacting them, said: Dshcher Jerusalem! Do not cry about me, but cry about yourself and your children, for the days come to which they say: "Blessed are untold, and the womb was unmodied, and the nipples did not feed!" Then they will begin to speak the Mountains: "Fall on us!" and hills: "Cover us!". For if with a green tree do it, then with dry what will happen?".
From Luke, (23: 27/31).
The station, which is somewhat away from the route, on the street.Francis, notes round stone, mounted in the wall.
Ninth Station – Third Drop Jesus
You can get to this station too, just deviating from the route. It is usually not done, limited by the statement of the possibility. The station is marked by a column located near the gate of the Ethiopian monastery. In itself, visiting this complex is of undoubted interest and implement it, of course, it is necessary if you have at that time. In addition, this is another opportunity to get directly into the courtyard of the temple.
The remaining stations Via Doloryozo are located inside the temple of the Lord. Therefore, we will now intervene for a story about it, and then, already entering inside, will continue the sorrowful path route.
Many years ago, when you first visit the temple, I had a question: was it really "this is" And there is the most holy place for Christians? – No, there can be no: wrapped walls, chaos of the inner space, full difference of chapel and t.D. Something is wrong here?! And I have nothing asked anything, stayed in the temple at night. Not me alone turned out to be a similar clever. We were a few people, silently those who went through the premises, each with its goal. Everything plunged into darkness and only the light that emanated from the hasty candles of the lamp allowed to move carefully. Full, but not at all squeezing, silence reigned in all rooms. It became clear to me that no one can hurt me, for the divine presence of the divine presence, the numerous squad of the angels, Serafimov, Cherubimov, and someone else, in which the presence of evil cannot happen. I realized that this temple could not be decorated with gilding, it can even be broken, and even more so to restore the unimaginable narrow paintings of the colonnade. It’s not Cologne and not Paris! This is the temple of the Mernel Coffin! Jesus, in his last hours, was in a dirty, impregnated later and blood rubbish. And his temple should look like the same, and not to be like a Vatican Cathedral, the luxury of which causes an association with a subtle aroma of expensive perfumes, emanating from the student of the monk. Beautiful temples in the world do not cut down, and the temple of the Holy Sepulcher is one!
Temple of the coffin of the Lord
Canonical name – the temple of the Resurrection of Christ. His story is so saturated with dramatic events, which can be set out only in the form of a book or chronology. I choose for our "Walk" second.
325 g. – Emperor Byzantium Konstantin I Great Decisions on the construction of the temple on the site of the Resurrection of Christ.
335 g. – End of the construction of the temple. fourteen.09 The temple of consecrated.
614 g. – The temple is destroyed by Persians.
630 g. – Temple reconstructed.
1009 g. – The temple is destroyed during the reign of Khalif Al-Khakim (996 – 1021.).
1042 – 1048. – Emperor Byzantia Konstantin Monomakh redid Rotonda to church.
1149 g. – The new temple is consecrated by the Crusaders 15.07.
1244. – The temple is destroyed by Muslims.
1719. – Temple restored.
1808. – The temple is destroyed by fire.
1810. – Temple restored.
We will restore mentally the event of the day when Jesus went to Calvary … Right – the city wall of those years (I remind you that Calvary was out of town). Jesus was removed from the city and crucified on Calvary, then placed on a stone, in order to prepare for burial, and was placed in the tomb belonging to Joseph Arimate. Arriving in Palestine, Tsaritsa Elena began searching for a holy place, determined him and found the Holy Cross there. Above these relics, on the command of Emperor Konstantin I Great, the temple was erected.
We enter the courtyard of the modern building.
Left from us are located: Church of St.Jacob dedicated to the brother of Jesus, the first bishop of Jerusalem, connected by a passage with the temple of Mary Magdalene; Church of forty martyrs. Right: Capells francs and chapels.Maria Egyptian; Capella Archangel Mikhail; Chapel of the Apostle John and Monastery of Abraham. I only list the names, t.To. You can visit only the Coppan Chapel of Archangel Mikhail. Other objects, for free visits, closed. Raising the back up. We will see the bell tower over the church of forty martyrs. Now she is a three-story, although it was originally built in five floors. But finally approach the entrance. We have a massive pair of doors, one of which is closed. Left, as a rule, sits a gatekeeper. He is the Turks by nationality and the story of his position is incredibly interesting, curl, go to the site: www.DOMOVOY.RU / 0112 / GOLIGHT / OPIT.ASP and read his monologue story. To the right of the entrance of the staircase, as soon as it turns out – out of 18 steps. On Calvary. We rise through Ne. It has come to continue the godfather of Jesus.
Tenth Station – Privacy Riz
This station is right, at the beginning of the Nafa, which in 1937 was renovated by Antonio Barlotzi. Plots Mosaics are quite diverse: from the images of Christ, the Virgin, to the analogy of His Son of Itzhak, with the sacrifice of Abraham. Created by different artists, they possess, respectively, various artistic advantages. But what is happening so famous to anyone who at least a little interested in the Bible is that the decoding is simply not required: you can move from the altar to the altar, moving on the right-left and everything will be clear.
Eleventh Station – Cross Further
In the altar you can explore the silver ark, the gift of the duke of Tuscan. On his six planes depicted scenes of the passions of the Lord.
The twelfth station – the death of Jesus on the cross
Station belongs to the Greek Orthodox Church. Abundance of paintings, lampada, icons, plus the opportunity to touch the sacred rock itself. Crucified figure of Jesus with the canonical location of Mother and John (evangelist).
Thirteenth Station – Removing the Body of Jesus from the Cross
Latin altar dedicated to the mournful of Our Lady. You see him under the arch separating Latin and Orthodox. The words are written here: "Stabat Mater Dolorosa" – "Mother grieving standing". Under the glass, on the altar, the Wooden Statue of the Virgin Mary, presented by the Queen of Portugal Maria I Braganskaya (the years of the Board 1777 – 1816) in 1778. To the stone of the world-building, which was laid by Jesus to derogate the body, in accordance with the Jewish rite, we approach after let’s go down with Calvary. He stands in the head of the temple and belongs to all six confessions, which are presented in the temple: Latin, Greek-Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Armenian, Coptic and Syrian. True, the number and location of the lampada is not equivalent, they depend on so many reasons for which the guide will tell you. This is one of two places on which Pilgrims put things brought by them to consecrate them. Passing from here to the tomb, pay attention to the left chapel. This is a chapel of three Mari.
"There were also watched many women who followed Jesus from Galilee, serving him, between them were Maria Magdaline and Maria, the mother of Jacob and Iosia, and the mother of the Sons of the Zauli".
Matthew, (27: 55/56).
She belongs to the Armenian-Gregorian Church.
Fourteenth Station – Coffin position
Rotunda. Kuvuklia. The tomb of Jesus Christ
In the center of a large rotunda (diameter – 32 m.), called Greek "Anastasis" – "Sunday", Is the oldest shrine of Christianity – the tomb of Jesus Christ. It is placed in a small chapel (Catholic name – "Edikula", Orthodox – "Kuvuklia"), erected on the place where the genuine Jewish tomb was once located.
Sizes Kuvuklia – 8 x 6 m. It consists of two parts: Western, hexagonal in terms of (it contains holy coffin), and eastern, almost rectangular (3.4 M. x 3.9 M.) where the angel’s arrival. With the opposite of the input of the western side, there is a small Coptic Capella, to which the foot of the tomb also goes. When, but for the most part, the long line is waiting for those who want to enter Kuvukly. It accommodates no more than 3-5 people and therefore, by the silent agreement, people come no more than a couple of minutes. Entering, Skip down the marble door decoration. On the left jacket, they are depicted figurines of women’s womenos, and on the right – an angel hand stretching to them. I think that after visiting Nazareth you have no questions about his name? – Of course, this angel gospel – Archangel Gabriel. Over the door placed in Greek his words: "What is looking for lives among the dead? He is not here, he rose". In the alarm of Angel, in Marble Larz, the shroves the shrine – the remainder of the stone, the once covered the entrance door to the tomb. And in the walls, two holes were done through which the holy fire is served at Easter, waiting for his believers. Come Cave herself (207 cm. x 193 cm.) is engaged half a stone lie, "Lavitsa", on which the body of Christ was resting. There are three icons on the marble floor "Resurrection": from Latin, Greek and Armenian churches, as the main Christian confessions. Therefore, three liturgies are made every day. Under the middle icon – the inscription in Greek: "Christ is Risen!". The overwhelming majority of pilgrims are put on the stove various things who want to sanctify.
And coming out, look around and admire the surrounding Rotunda colonnade from 18 columns. Yes, and the rotond. Pilgrims from Russia will curious to know that the Dome of the Rotonda over Kuvukley was rebuilt in 1865 – 1869. According to the joint project of Russian and French architects M.AND.Epinger and K.Moss at the expense of Russian, french and Turkish money. And the priest of the Kuvuklia is decorated with carved silver hay with 12 icons of the Holy Apostles. They are implemented in the technique of Rostov Finifsti and appeared here since 1859, when the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, Brother of the Russian Tsar, Head of the Russian Naval Office, visited together with his wife, Alexandra Iosifovna, Temple of the Mernel Coffin.
Opposite the entrance to Kuvukliya is the Greco-Orthodox Church of Ascension, called Kafolikon.
Kaffolikon – Cathedral Temple, which is a cathedral for Jerusalem Patriarch. Word "Kafolic" Was introduced St.Ignatimi God ("Where Christ, there and the Catolytic Church"), and used since that time in the sense of integrity, inseparable accuracy of each church community. It entered Latin as "Ecclesia Kafolika", Slavic languages translated as "Cathedral", and in Greek "Kafolikon" – Main Church of the community. Capholicone has been in a state of restoration for many years and this process due to the lack of funds stretches very slowly. You can give a quote from the book of Bishop Methodius "holy Land" (Paris 1961.) About the church to restoration work, begun in 1967: "In the first tier of a high five-tiered iconostasis – beautiful, in golden riza, Russian icons. Top tiers marble, with carved figures instead of icons. Went iconostasis Big crucifix with the upcoming Most Holy Theotokos and John theologian". I will add from myself that there are two pair icons of St.Alexander Nevsky and Mary Magdalina, Heavenly Patrons of Alexander II and Empress Mary Alexandrovna, a wonderful painter brushes, academic.A.Neffa (1805 – 1875.), famous for its works in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. And the three luxurious panicadiles are presented with the emperor Nikolai I.
The invariable curiosity of tourists causes something similar to the stone vase, as a rule, in the middle of the basilica. This is the so-called "The center of the world", Mystical center of the Universe. Returning to the Rotonda – Let’s start bypassing objects climbing.
Tombs Joseph Arimafi and Nicodemic
Opposite Copt Capella there is an entrance that leads to the system of ancient Jewish burials carved right in the rock. Christian tradition determines among them and the tomb of Joseph Arimate and Nicodemia.
The altar of the Christ to Mary Magdalene
All the further space to the southeast of the phenomenon of Christ of His mother is devoted to the phenomenon of Jesus Christ Mary Magdaline. As you know, Maria The first came to the coffin and found an empty tomb. Further events of the phenomenon of Christ Mary are known. This scene is depicted on the sculptural composition of the altar belonging to Franciscans. A small Franciscan chapel of the Christ His mother appears logical following the altar. The event, as you know, is not mentioned in the Gospels, but it firmly entered the tradition and is celebrated in this place already starting from the period of the Crusaders. Modern room is consecrated in 1965.
The next door leads to the Franciscan sacristy, which is a peculiar small museum of various relics. It is closed for visits, but, as a rule, monks do not refuse to inspect them. Sword and Spur King Crusaders Gotfried Boulevard, Knight’s chain rails and armor, the versions of the monks of various periods immerse us into the world of the Keepers of the Holy Land. And if you clarify the time of the evening bypass of the temple with the monks, then you can get an unforgettable impression of their singing under the accompaniment of the organ. What, and acoustics in the church is excellent.
Going further, we leave the rotunda and pass to the chapel of the Ultrasound of Christ through the corridor, called the ambulatory or arcades of the Most Holy Virgin. It contains archaeological finds of the earliest periods of the temple: fragments of columns, details of jewelry, stones of walls and t.D.
Chapel of Ultra Christ
Gloomy, dark room, in the seplace of which the holes for the shackles are visible, which were settled prisoners, fully corresponds to the name "Dunna Christ". The room itself, the altar and icon depicting Jesus in the skies belong to the Greeks of Orthodox. Coming out from here and continuing the movement further, we will examine the three came:
It was he who tried a spear side of Christ. How he was in life, this commander of the Roman Centuria, who arrived in Jerusalem in April 33, with a detachment of the prefect of Jews Pontius Pilate? Probably steep and honest warrior, habitual to discipline, which served not for fear, and for the conscience. Then he was appointed to accompany the sentenced to Calvary. Nobody from the mortal before, nor after did not fall out the fate to crucify the Son of God.
And it happened impossible: God rose in Roman Centurion earlier than died on the cross. The killer identified himself with the victim. And then, with the same Roman automation, Centurion Longin – "Long" becomes a fierce, stubborn preacher of the resurrected Lord. And stop Longin in his gratuitous feat could only death. Which fell on it in 58 in Caesia Cappadocyan, where he died for faith with martyr’s death. Altar is open in memory of him. It belongs to the Greek Orthodox, which placed in the Altar of Triptych, depicting the lives of the Holy. Curiosity for the sake of mentioned that Longin is considered a healer in Orthodox folk medicine. She says that both Longin himself is clear for a new life, and the appeal to it in prayers helps believers in the healing of eye diseases.
The next chapel of the riso-discovery belongs to Armenians. She marks the place on which by legend, an equal to the Apostles Tsarina Elena found Hiton Jesus, thrown here by the guards. There are several options for the further destiny of Hiton, the guide will tell you about them in the process of excursion.
For a few minutes, the descent in the chapel of St.Elena and inspect.
Print the crop
The chapel belongs to the Greek Orthodox. The topic is the humiliation of Christ, which he has undergone from the crowd. Under the altar is a fragment of the column on which Jesus was sitd, crowned with a thorns.
And finally, drop down, in the independent part of the temple complex – Capel.Elena and Capel.
This part of the temple is perhaps the most ancient, t.To. In accordance with the tradition, the cross was acquired by the most Queen of Elena, and Capella was a crypt of Martyrium, built by the emperor Konstantine. Capella belongs to the Armenian-Gregorian Church.
The plot of one of the pictures is clearly illustrated by my story from the head of the Armenian Church on the educational activities of St.Gregory and the baptism of Armenia. The chief altar is dedicated to Queen Elena, and the left-hander from him, who was crucified, who was crucified with Jesus and did not listen to him. In Chapel, according to tradition, stands the chair, in which the queen of Elena sat, watching the search of the cross.
Which discovered, nevertheless, in the bottom chapel, where the quarry once was located. The number of legends, legends, testes that are connected with the cross can not be brought even in one separate book. Let’s not try to do it. All that remains – covered with glass, t.To. there were cases when they even tried to eat something with teeth. Rising upstairs and continuing the walk We fell into the chapel of Adam.
Tradition has long been attributed to the burial place of Adam Calvary skull. It turns out, it seems, it is logical and beautiful: the cross is made of wood from which our rammer Eva threw the forbidden fetus, the skull is buried at the place of crucifixion of the Savior, the blood of which he was washed, hoping at the very beginning of the original sin. Here just obliged to be chapel! Not so long ago there were also the tomb of the Jerusalem kings of the period of the Crusaders, but in N.v. they remain only plates. By the way, at the entrance to the temple, under a wooden hatch, there is another curious stove, saying that the glorious knight-crusader Philipp de Aubingni is buried here (Filippus de Aubingni). Well, now you can still bypassed the temple, already calmly stopping only where you want.