Jordan: From the sources to the Dead Sea
Jordan Valley begins south of the Lebanese Valley. Very often its own name of the river, mountain or hill in Hebrew, can we reveal a lot from the real features of the place. Jordan on Hebrew – Yad. Root Yorade – descending. It is impossible to more concise and clearly convey the essence of this river. In addition, this is the only river in Israel, which flows from the north to south, and not from the east to the west. Jordan feeds, basically, Hermon Mountains Mountains. Some peaks of the Hermonic ridge are covered with eternal snow, and in winter almost the entire ridge disappears under a thick white bedspread. Somewhere, in the period of Padach, the melting begins that the sources of Jordan begins. The main tributaries of Jordan three: Hambani, Dan and Banias. The greatest height of Hermon – 2.814 meters. The height of that peak, which is located in the Israeli territory – 2.223 meters. Jordan flows into the dead sea, and his mouth lies with 400 meters below sea level. Since the length of the river itself is in a straight line about 150 km, you can imagine, at what speed of its water. And this stream, which in Russia would be called a river, or even a large stream, is actually a very effective natural obstacle. Before the era of stone, iron and concrete bridges, and of course, the helicopters of crossing over Jordan was extremely extraordinary, and sometimes a dangerous event.
So, after the merger of all three tributaries, Jordan begins his way down, south. Initially, there is a wide valley on his way, locked between the mountains of Galilee and Golan heights, called the Hula Valley, named a small lake in her middle. The length of the valley is 75 km., Width – 12 km. From three sides, it is surrounded by mountains: in the east – the Golan Plato, in the West – Naftali mountains, in the north – Lebanese Mountains. Since the ancient times, the Valley was famous for his fertility, thanks to the magnificent combination of hot climate, the abundance of water and very rich appliance land. In the IIth Millennium, to a new era on a hill that dominates the central part of the valley, Hazor was located. In the book of Iehoshua about it, it is said: "And Hatsor before the head of all the principalities of these" (Iehoshua, 11:10). Indeed, the wealth of the surrounding land and proximity to important international roads of that time gave the opportunity to the city princes to create a strong and powerful state that could afford the content of a well-trained army, armed, among other things, a large number of combat chariots. At the time, it was no less serious than the presence of tank divisions in our time, and therefore Hator delivered a lot of trouble with our ancestors, until they realized that the chariots are also helpless in swamps, like modern tanks.
During periods of stagnation and the launch of the Dolley of Hula was a big swamp. One of the reasons for the fact that the Jews were able to buy a lot of wetlands in the first half of the twentieth century, was related to the fact that the Arab Sheikh and Efendi were happy to get rid of them, as Arabs were badly able to handle them and did not receive large Revenues. Jewish settlers, the price of tremendous effort, suffering from malaria, who carried out life for life, were able to master and drain the Hula Valley. In the seventies, a reserve, which retains the pristine flora and fauna, opened in the seventies. You can get acquainted with an example of the economy of that time in the Museum-Manor Joawa Dubrovina. This is a very interesting story of the Russian peasant from Astrakhan, who accepted Judaism. He came to the holy land taking with him everything necessary for agricultural work and a scroll of Torah. Bought 650 Dunnes of the Earth and started a strong farm. At the exhibition of 1922, Dubrovin brought the bull, put it on the scales, the springs burst and the scales collapsed. Bull turned out to be the most severe in Galilee. Malaria claimed the lives of his sons. But when the 95-year-old Joava asked if he did not regret the arrival here, he said: "I have one consolation that my grandchildren will be able to read the Bible in Hebrew. I arrived at the holy land not for the sake of profit, but from love for the creator ". In addition, the museum can also be found with other materials related to settlement activities in the area: about Jessood ha-Ma’ala – 1883., Mishmar Ha Yurden – 1890 g., Metule – 1896., Mahanim – 1898., and post-war settlements Kfar Gil’adi, Tel High, Aeleet Ha-Shahar. 17 Jewish settlements were created before the war in the valley.
But continue about Jordan … He continues his run south. After the Valley of Hula, his bed is somewhat narrowed, and for some time his water runs along a rather narrow gorge. But the mountains of Galilee are retreating to the West, the Goluns are east, and a magnificent sparkling church of Lake Kinners opens to our eyes.
Tens of millions of years ago, in nature there was a unique geological phenomenon, as a result of which the earth Cora unfolded for 6.5 thousand km, and a crack formed, called the Great Syrian-African Fault. Part of it is located on our territory. The result was a series of water bodies with unique qualities: the river Jordan, the Lake Kinners and the Dead Sea. Now it will be about kinner. The reservoir is located in the northern part of the Syrian-African fault, about 209 meters below sea level. His length, from north to south, 22 kilometers; Width, from east to west, 14 kilometers; Area – 170 kV. km, and the greatest depth is 43 meters. The volume of water in the lake – 4 billion. cubic meters. Features of the subtropical climate of this area create a kind of temperature regime in the lake. From about the middle of May to the end of December, Kinneret’s water is clearly divided into two layers: warm (from 22 to 30 degrees), well-mixed upper layer (ephymanion) depth from 16 to 30 meters, and deeper, cool (from 13 to 16 degrees) , devoid of oxygen (hypolimnion). In winter, this dynamicity disappears and the aqueous mass is completely mixed. Water in Kinner brings, mostly River Jordan. The rest comes from numerous rivers and streams flowing from the Golan plateau.
Modern outlines of Kinners acquired about 18 thousand years ago. This is the confirmation of the fact that scientists have discovered the early prehistoric parking of a person two kilometers southeast of the lake. Certificates of later prehistoric settlements found in Karst Caves Wadi Amud, north-west of Kinneret, where the remnants of Galileanin are found – primitive man who lived here 100-150 thousand years ago. As pages of the book of history, it would be possible to transfer 16 cultural layers of excavations produced in Tel Beit-Iran, on the southeastern coast of the lake: from ancient times – through the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Arabs – to the first settlers of the late XIX century.
In the times of the Greek, Roman and Byzantine Board of the coast of Kinneret were thickly populated. There are a sufficiently large number of factors that determine interest in this area, the main of which are: a strategy location (I will remind you that the Via Marris road was held here, which binding Egypt with the fertile crescent countries); abundance of freshwater needed for agriculture; Fisheries, which constituted part of the diet of local residents and being the subject of trade; And finally, hot springs, which at all times attracted here with their healing qualities of patients with various diseases. From the moment of founding on the shore of the city of Tiberia, the arrival of refugees from the destroyed Jerusalem, among which there were dozens of Jewish wise men, and, of course, to justify Jerusalem Talmuda, justifying Jerusalem Talmuda.
Of all sorts of memories, like Chronicles of Joseph Ben Mattatia (more famous under the name of Flavius), Talmudic literature, would only remain in words if they were not confirmed by material evidence, archaeological excavations. In Galilee there are about 50 excavated synagogues, convincingly proving the facts of the Jewish presence in Galilee and on Golan.
Kinnernet gained special popularity in connection with the Christian tradition. As you know, settlements around the lake became the venue of Jesus. After time, churches, monasteries were erected here, to commemorate the events from the earthly path of Christ, which became objects of pilgrimage and tourism.
Coming out of the Kinnernet, Jordan loses the swiftness of his current, becomes calm and low-water. Probably, it was not always. Can it be otherwise if.v. Every year, water is a fence in the quantity of 1 billion. cubic meters? And only if this is not a place in my "walk"? In essence, in this place it is worth putting a point on a story about the river playing such a significant role in the Jewish and Christian tradition. What i will do! Adding only a few considerations of the guide ..
The entire upper part of Jordan, before his sign in Chinner, is replete with excellent places for active and passive recreation. What could be better than a day off, spent, say, in the nature reserve "Dan"? Or in the yad park, where you can go down the river on kayaks? And then do the favorite sport of the Sport of Israelis, – Food at one of the well-maintained platforms. Tourists can visit the perfectly equipped place of baptism in Zaravy, and history lovers will be empty slightly lower by the preserved remnants on Jordan constructions of the Crusaders. The choice is yours! Do not sit only at home!