Jordan – Pearl of Sands
Most of the territory of the Khistrist kingdom are the desert, but in the endless sands, the invaluable treasures of world culture are hidden – the ancient cities, castles and palaces. A small state turned out to be at the junction of great civilizations: Arab fairy tales, antique legends, biblical traditions come to life, and Millennium Millennium Millennium. About some of the most important attractions of Jordan we have already written before. Continue list.
In the very center of the Jordan capital, Dzhabal al-Kala is towers – Citadel Amman, the heart of the ancient city. During the excavations, archaeologists found in the fortress the objects of neolithic, and this allowed to attribute Amman to the oldest continuously populated cities of the planet. Now you can see the historical monuments at once in the citadel: the majestic columns of the Roman Temple of Hercules, the impressive Palace of Omeyadov and a small Byzantine Church with fragments of vintage mosaics are adjacent to the Citadel. Here, a huge reservoir has been preserved, which accommodated a thousand cubic meters of rainwater and was used for the water supply of the palace. And the exhibits of the Archaeological Museum of Jordan, also located in the Citadel, will tell all about the past of the country, starting from the Stone Age. The fortress takes the highest of seven Hills Amman, so that a beautiful view of the capital of Jordan opens from here.
Right at the foot of the Citadel Amman in the rock, a huge bowl of the Roman theater built in the first century. NS. He still amazes its size – this is one of the biggest amphitheators of the Middle East, which accommodate about 6,000 people (the main Amphitheater of the Empire – the Roman Colosseum accompanied to 50,000). The grandiose structure is partially restored, cultural and sporting events are carried out here, city holidays. The columns of the ancient Forum and Fountain Nymphown are preserved in front of the theater. The amphitheater is adjacent to Odeon – a small theater, designed for 500 people. Nowadays, it is also used for its intended purpose – for concerts.
Museum of Folk Traditions
If architectural monuments indicate the events of the distant past, then you can immerse yourself in the life and life of the recent years of years in the Museum of Folk Traditions Amman. A small but very interesting ethnographic museum is located in the eastern part of the Roman theater, so you can visit these attractions. On the first floor there are famous mosaics from Gerash and Mabada, on the second – national costumes, jewelry, ceramics, weapons and tools, coins. All these exhibits recreate the unique atmosphere of the East.
Fortress in the desert
Jordan is impossible to imagine without deserted fortresses and castles, and the most famous of such structures is located in the east of the country, 70 km from Amman. Kusayir-Amra Fortress was erected in the VIII century and served by the country residence of the Caliphs of the Omeyad Dynasty. The architectural complex included the palace and the bath – the best thing she was preserved. The swimming pool resembled Roman terms: there were several rooms with different temperatures, a cool water pool and a rest room. So far, you can see the well, the remnants of the water supply system and the furnace, which heated the water for the pair. But the most amazing in Kusayr-Amre – numerous frescoes covering the entire inner surface of the palace halls. These are images of people and animals: scenes of hunting and bathing, struggle and archery, music and dancing. Mural Kusayir Amra – a unique sample of secular painting of Muslim countries, and their artistic value allowed to include the fortress in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site.
From the era of Omeyadov – in the Middle Ages: Ajlun Castle was built in the XII century to protect trade routes from the Crusaders. This is a well-preserved sample of the Arab military architecture – a true impregnable fortress. Crusaders never managed to conquer Ajlun: The castle stands on a high grief. It is surrounded by a dry dish of 15-meter depth and is protected by a well-fortified gate with decorative stone pigeons. The main entrance is the lifting bridge, the fortress is decorated with five towers. Once inside, you get into the labyrinth of vaulted passages, screw stairs, dining rooms and personal chambers. In good weather from the top pad of the castle, you can see the valley of the Jordan River, and sometimes even the outlines of Jerusalem. And not far from Ajluna there is another biblical landmark – Tal Mar Elias, or Hill Saint Elijah. It is believed that it is from here that the prophet Elijah ascended to the sky on a fiery chariot. Previously, there was a church, from which only the foundation and fragments of mosaic floors.
Throughout the two centuries, the Middle East was under the power of the Crusaders, and the evidence of their former power was preserved in Jordan – for example, Caraca Castle. This bastion was erected at the beginning of the XII century, resist a few ozide, and then captured by the troops of the Egyptian Caliph. One of the most magnificent castles of Jordan impresses not so much beauty, how many dimensions – 220 m in length and 125 m wide. Powerful gear walls and stronghold tower crusaders are built at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level. And the most interesting hidden inside: tunnels, underground, long corridors and galleries with stone vaults, numerous rooms. To get to the castle, you first need to go through a narrow gorge of a depth near a kilometer, and from the windows of the fortress you can see the Dead Sea. The lock is divided into two courtyards: the lower served as a barrier for the invaders, in the upper there are main buildings – the residence of the ruler, the church and the mosque.
The oldest cities of the world are concentrated in the Middle East, to visit one of them in Jordan. Pella in the Valley of the Jordan River – a real box with antiquities: Monuments of different eras and civilizations are preserved in a small territory. The first settlement appeared here in the Stone Age, 4000 years ago Pella was already a city. The remnants of the fortified cities of the Bronze and Iron Ages, the ancient theater of Odeon, Roman fountains, the Byzantine Temple Complex, Vintage Churches, Mosque and the Ranneislamic Residential Quarter – in the ancient Pelle before the eyes there are centuries and the millennium of human history. Archaeological excavations here continue so far – the old city keeps even quite a few surprises and secrets.
Jordanian Madaba (Biblical Medeva) is famous for its unique mosaics, the most famous of them – the oldest map of the Holy Land in the Church of St. George. But you can see these works of art not only in the temples: in the city there is a kind of open-air museum – Archaeological Park Mabada. Here are samples of mosaic, as well as architectural structures of different times: urban villas, churches and public buildings. Mosaic images are very diverse: these are plants and animals, fish and birds, scenes from the myths and everyday life of hunters, fishermen and farmers. In the city, carefully store the experience and knowledge of the ancient masters – a mosaic school works next to the archaeological park, in which the secrets of the ancient craft are trained.
Ruins of ancient civilizations
But the largest mosaic in Jordan was found not in Madaba, but in the archaeological complex Umm-Er-Rasas: during the excavations of this settlement, scientists discovered a military camp and 16 temples in which mosaic floors were preserved. The largest Jordanian mosaic can be seen in St. Stephen’s Church – on a huge panel depicted scenes from the life of cities that were part of the Byzantine Empire. Next to one of the temples, a 14-meter stone tower rises, on the top of which monks – Statzniki lived, is the only reminder in the world about a peculiar religious tradition. Ruins of Umm-Er-Rasas contain traces of Roman, Byzantine and early Muslim cultures, so the archaeological complex was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
One of the most famous and popular places of Jordan – Aqaba. The city is located on the Red Sea coast, and you can get acquainted with the history of this region in the Archaeological Museum of Aqaba. He occupies the Palace of the founder of the Hashemite dynasty, and the most ancient exhibits date back to the bronze age. The museum contains a rich collection of archaeological finds from Aqaba and the Wadi-Rama desert, including the objects of Islamic culture: weapons, ceramics, decorations, gold coins. And the most memorable exhibit is a large stove with verses from the Quran, which in the IX century decorated the eastern gate of the city. Aqaba – also the resort city: come here to relax on the Red Sea and do diving.
Information for travelers
You can see all this and much more you can with the Jordan Pass card – in a single entrance ticket included free visit to 40 main attractions of the country. In addition, Jordan Pass owners do not need to pay visa fees upon receipt of a Jordanian visa at the airport. So you save three times: you do not need to pay for the entrance, spend time in line at the cashier and buy a guide – information support is carried out with the help of Jordan Pass, all brochures will be on your smartphone.