Jwanneg means "Where pebbles"
My wife was bent to shake the pebbles, stuck in the corrugated shoe sole, and our accompanying strain. Yes, visitors on this largest diamond cut in the world are not uncommon, everyone needs to carefully monitor, especially since we are the first official delegation of Russian journalists in history.
This place in the Kalahari desert is called Jwanen, that translated from the Netsvan language means "Where pebbles", That is diamonds. And is not the adhesive "pebbles" To the sole? But the wife shakes shoes, demonstrates the palms – and the accompanying smiles relaxed relaxed. Everything is in order, the excursion continues. Enclosure belonging "DeBSwan" – Joint enterprise "De Birs" and Botswana governments.
Smooth, as if damn, the surroundings of Jwanenga, Nevertheless, do not resemble the desert – around, how many eyes are enough, grassy grass and shredded crowns of camel spines, the fruits of which they love to eat elephants. Now only the beginning of summer in the southern hemisphere, the sun has not yet managed to smear everything. Nothing foreshadows and "Abundance of stones", Until you drive up to the edge of a huge pitual, a quarter of a kilometer, where diamonds are produced in an open way. It can be seen, once the precious crystals were placed on the plates right on the surface, and now, in order to get them, carry from the bottom Kimberlite clay 240-ton dump trucks.
In most countries, such objects are carefully protected – there can be no speech about excursions. But in Jwanenge, they are happy to receive guests. True, at the same time carefully instruct that there is nothing to raise anything on the territory of the career, even obliges to convert into uniform black heavy boots. So the vigilance of the accompanying was clearly involuntary, especially since the exits of all are passed through special separate gateways for women and men with some kind of super-modern shocking.
Around the cut and the processing complex – in several rows of barbed wire under the current, at the output – full personal inspection is possible, and some objects, such as the repository of mined diamonds in the underground bunker, are closed for extraneous cameras. "It is prohibited from the shooting and loading of products in Armored Machines of collectors, – explained to us. – Do not give extra trumps criminals".
– However, – smiling, told us Grace from the public relations department "DeBSwany", – If you find a diamond and pass it, you get 20 percent of the estimated value. This is our main barrier on the path of theft.
Clean the career really have something. Botswana More than any other countries of the planet extracts jewelry diamonds and annually exports them about two and a half billion dollars. For example, 70 percent of sparkling pebbles sold by the Sales Company "De Birs" – "Diamond trading company", Botswana origin. And out of 40 more than millions of karats extracted annually from the depths of Botswana, 13.5 million falls on Jwanung, the rest – on younger careers in Orape, Letlhakan and Damtshaa.
– To get diamonds, you need to dug, deliver upstairs and sift tons of kimberlite, here this gray-blue clay, – Grace continues, pointing to a brown breed, whipped into small dust with rudders-giants.
– We want our career to become the best in the world, we have the highest product yield per unit of redden breed, and yet it is about one and a half carat diamonds per ton. And more than a forty ago hunters-san and rare flocks of nomads-tsvan wandered here. By the way, excursions and how possible openness is part of the campaign conducted "Debsso" In the peak orchestrated from the UK, planned attacks on Botswana, which accused of mining diamonds due to exorbitant exploitation and suffering of sanitary inhabitants of Calahari.
The story comes to the story, told to us on the day before President Botswana Festeus Mogay. "Botswance, "the president told us during a meeting, – to independence were rich only by cattle and wild animals. I remember how a former official of the British colonial administration flew to our capital of the British Colonial Administration, which was the last time we had in 1937. Before leaving the plane, he asked: "What about leopards? Not dangerous? After all, in my time it was a leopard valley – so many of them were here". Indeed, on the site of the current modern city for another half a century ago, the wild shrubs were thickets, according to which leopards, antelopes, elephants were injured in abundance. The Britons have always considered our country as a kind of incatch to South Africa – a rich hunting land and an extensive reservoir of unskilled labor".
Unlikely, no more fermented changes occurred in Janeng, where a slow life overnightly switched to other speeds after the detection of the diamond deposit – at once three kimberlite tubes that come up to one. In 1973, geologists famous "De Birs" Opened the field near the seasonal parking lot owned by the leader of one of the TSSvan tribes. In 1978 "De Birs" and the Botswana government created a joint venture "Debswana" And the construction of the cut began, and in 1982 the first diamonds went. And green – the most rare and therefore especially valuable. This is the country’s business card on the global jewelry diamond market.
Wise Botswans did not follow the example of the Zaire, the CAR or other countries, where only the top of the diamond was enriched and where the diamonds were in the end became "bloody" – Civil wars were funded at their expense. Too slow and rusty at first glance, they turned out to be solid and far-sighted, and not begging. Until now, the worst crime in Botswana is a bribe, and the road fines are unquestioned by all the receipts, from a simple truck driver to the minister. "Kgii k kgii kaato" – "The leader becomes the leader just because he chooses the people" – This inscription, embroidered on the carpet above the head of the Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber of the Chief of the Botswana Parliament, is not just a beautiful declaration. We are talking about the principle of a peculiar traditional democracy of TSSvan: It was so that it was ruled, they rule and will apparently rule them leaders, no matter how they were called – Kings, presidents, speakers. Or their close relatives. But the leader can only be when you are worth it and supports you.
– As of September 30, 1966, when independence was acquired, we were a primitive cattle society, and now the UN considers us a modern state with an average (by world indicators) by the level of GDP per capita, "says Fesitus Mogay.
– At first, leading negotiations with "De Birs" and other mining giants, we could not demand something and agreed almost to all their conditions. For example, when in Jwanenge "De Birs" Inserted funds to the arrangement of mines and cuts, in the establishment of production, then we, in order to encourage investors, waited them from taxes within seven years, realizing that they should spend money on the launch of production. However, when they went to a stable profit, we conducted new negotiations and agreed that 60 percent of net profit will go Botswana.
Now the Botswana side receives more than 80 percent of the profits, and "De Birs" – Less than 20 percent. We did not pass these income, did not eat them and did not send to financing current expenses, but created the development budget. Roads, schools, hospitals – All that you can now see in Botswana, built after our independence. After all, before independence, we had nothing – no airports, no modern buildings, only during the British ruler of Cecil Rhodes through the territory of the current Botswana, the railway was built, according to which gold from Rhodesia, the current Zambia and Zimbabwe, was exported to Cape Town, president. When the traveler went to our territory from South Africa or Rodezia, his poster was on the border: "You get to the British Protectorate of the Bechuanland. Caution, here a lot of dust!
Jwaneng is one of the fruit of the far-sighted and prudent policy of the first president Botswana Sermetse Khama, the son of the leader of the largest Tsvan tribe – Bamangwato, who managed to limit British colonial defaults in the XIX century. And his successors – Ketumil Masira and Festeus Moga. At the place of the nomads, a small and neat town grew up, where you can do well. "Debswana" It will almost completely reach the staff to pay for children in a private school, and this in Botswana is about one and a half thousand dollars in a quarter. Almost 100 percent subsidize and treatment in the hospital of the company – the most modern in the country. For its employees, the company built upscale sports facilities – a stadium for rugby and football, gymnastic halls and tennis courts, bikers and swimming pools.
Territory around the cut belonging "DeBSwan", turned into a large national park with antilopes, lions, giraffes and leopards. From the simple receipt of the part of the profits from the mined "De Biers" Diamond Botswana moved to an equal partnership, and recently achieved the consent of the monopolist to create a joint venture on the assessment and sales of diamonds. The first four granular factories will be opened in Botswana. Imagine that in Botswana will be welcoming the journalist from Moscow, just a few years ago it would seem naive. This country of Africa, along with Kenia and Côte d’Ivoire, was considered one of the most pro-Western and more than cool to the Russians, and earlier – to Soviet people. But now much has changed.
In any case, a trip, organized for the ITAR-TASS correspondent in South Africa and correspondent "Russian newspaper" Vladimir Lebedeva, with the assistance of our embassy in Botswana, surpassed all expectations. Everywhere we felt a frank, benevolent attitude, the desire to directly and honestly discuss cooperation with Russia. President, in the past one of the heads of the World Bank, paid us a whole hour, said a lot of warm words, obviously not limited to diplomatic politeness to Russia.
– Botswana is configured to the closest ties with Russia – a large and powerful, technologically developed power, "said 65-year-old president.
– We strongly strive to increase the number of investors in Botswana, primarily Russian, – Stressed Mogay. Botswana hopes to attract the largest Russian companies, for example "ALROSU" and "Renov". We want them to become our reliable partners in the exploration and mining of diamonds, coal, copper-nickel ore. Botswana is ready to take on the abolition of entry visas for Russians and to open his embassy in Russia for the sake of accelerating the development of bilateral relations.
In Africa, it envy.
Botswana – State in southern Africa. Borders from South Africa, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Enters the Commonwealth Association of former British colonies. Area – 600.4 thousand square kilometers. Population – 1.6 million people. Capital – Gaborone City. Official languages - English and Netsvan.
Most of the country occupies the desert Kalahari. Droughts occur periodically in the country. Water sources are extremely limited. Agriculture, mainly farming, still provides means of existence of more than 80 percent of the population. The most important sectors of the economy are mining diamonds and tourism. The largest people – TSSvan. Two thirds of the population adhere to local traditional beliefs, the rest – Christians.
For a long time, Bechuanlande, as Botswana was called in the British, was a protectorate, and then the colony of Great Britain. In 1966, the country received preparedness. Now – one of the leaders of Africa in terms of economic development and modern infrastructure.