Kalmykia. Salted lake Manch-Gudilo
At the very border of the Stavropol Territory and the Republic of Kalmykia, one of the most interesting lakes in Russia is a bitter-salt lake Manch-Gudilo. It is interesting for many reasons. First, its length is more than 180 kilometers. What is comparable, for example, with famous Ladoga and Onega Lakes. Secondly, it’s a lake "buzz", More precisely, the sounds similar to Hood. And this fact is even reflected in his name. Thirdly, Manych-Gudilo is Kalmyk (or Stavropol, or Rostov, who is closer) an analogue of the Dead Sea. Moreover, so that this steppe sea is not at all "died" It was diluted with fresh water, thus creating a proletarian reservoir. Fourth, there are a number of facts that prove that the once lake Manch-Goudilo became a sea strait connected to the Caspian and Black Sea. So when we, during our last trip to Stavropol, were at the entrance to Kalmyki and saw among the wide steppes no less broad water strip of this lake, they simply could not stop to photograph and. Try Manch-Hoody taste. 🙂
However, first about Kalmykia and Kalmyks. Moreover, relatively recently, in 2009 there was a very significant date – the 400th anniversary of the voluntary entry of the Kalmyk people to the Russian state.
Kalmyks (under the name of Oratov) were known to the Russians in the second half of the XVI in. Active trade was conducted with nomadic tribes, which was even encouraged by the Russian government recommending their subjects, for example, in the adjacent town of Tara "trade with them something duty-free, let them send their best people to conclude a contract on citizenship, do not blame, do not bother, protect them from enemies". And really, "Best" People from Ouratov came, the contract was signed. However, Thai – Kalmyk Feudals with ease of the political deal with the Russian king, after some time with the same ease violated their obligations. And then. again sought to negotiate.
Moreover, in those long-standing times, many contracts were exclusively oral. Or allowed different interpretation. For example, during the Russian-Kalmyt negotiations, Russian ambassadors, on the basis of previously signed by Kalmyks, spoken of the adoption by the Orats of the citizenship of Russia. What, Kalmyk Thai proudly declared "We never asked about citizenship", And the fact that we signed is nothing more than contracts for the cooperation of two equal parties.
And all this cottage: "entered – did not entered", "subjects – not subject" lasted quite a long time. So far, in February 1608, the next Ohirat delegation did not reach Moscow, where the ambassadors were accepted by the king Vasily Shuisky and on behalf of part of the Kalmyk Princes did not ask them to take them into Russian citizenship. The complete conditions of citizenship voiced at the negotiations of 1608 were recorded in a literacy of August 20, 1609. Actually, therefore, 1609 and is considered the official date of entry of the Kalmyk people in Russia.
And where did the name "Kalmyki"? According to researchers, there are several terms for the designation of Western Mongols in Russian and foreign literature. "Ohrata" – from Mongolian and Kalmyk sources. A "Kalmyki" – from Muslim (from Turkic "Halimag", What denoted "separated", "remaining"). Term "Kalmyki" Over time, they began to denote the groups of Oratov, who lived on the Rivers Volga, Don and Urals. That is, just first and entered (separated) into Russia.
At the same time, the Volga Orats for almost two centuries did not call themselves Kalmyks. They gradually absorbed this name, and only by the end of the XVIII century it was officially approved as self-deficiting of this nation. So, it is probably worth it to consider that it is the adoption of a new self-discharge "Kalmyki" and finished the consolidation process of part of the Oiratsky tribes, moved to Russia, in an independent new Mongolian population – Kalmyk. Which became the basis for the current Republic of Kalmykia.
Republic of Kalmykia – in many ways, agrarian republic. And main income here brings animal husbandry. I do not know how anyone, but I have Calmykia, it is clearly associated with sheep and lambs in huge quantities of grazing along the edges of roads. Buy lamb, steam room, fresh here, in general, not a problem. Halves and whole carcasses are awesome, then there in many populated punts.
I will say more – I have not seen such numerous Otar not in Dagestan, nor in Chechnya. Although it is precisely these regions that we are considered the most important in terms of sheep. However, as in any other types of industries, with the councils, everything was much cooler than now. There were Millionaire collective farms, and Tabunchiki-Stakhanovy and Chabany-Front. And now. And now the same as everywhere.
But let’s not talk about sad. We will talk about lake Manch-Gudilo. Here it was, just seemed behind the proud head of the ram depicted on Stelle of the Kirov Livestock. Lake, of course impressive. And not even how many amazing facts that I listed at the beginning of the post, how much did your species – a strip of water to the horizon in the spreading steppe.
Water, in a bitter and salty lake and really bitter and salty. To taste and in terms of saline concentration resembling or Mediterranean or even the Red Sea. But the transparency of Mananych, of course an order of magnitude lower. Yes, and the depth is small here – a few meters, no more. Although what to demand from the reservoir, which in the last century several times breathed almost completely. Theer is that in this salty water managed to survive several types of fish. Which attract flight birds – the swans, cranes, ducks and even pelicans on Manany-Guedilo.
Interestingly is the post of traffic police, dividing the Republic of Kalmykia and Stavropol Territory – it is located on the island. It can be seen in the picture of the navigator – on both sides of the road water, water and again water. By the way, the check here is very serious – stop everyone, and the documents require not only drivers, but also in passengers – the passport should be grabbed all. But, waiting for a queue for checking documents, you can learn a lot of interesting things about the history of Mananya, about the silk way, which once passed in these edges and about where you can swim, and where it is not worthwhile, the DPS officers are extremely talkative and willingly act as guided signs.
I continue the theme of the islands – there are two large islands on Manchanich-Gudilo: bird and water. So, as it is clear from the title, birds live on the bird island, and on water. Wild Mustangi. Yes Yes exactly. Here is already greater than half a century a herd of beautiful Mustang horses live. And scientists have not yet proven how the horses found themselves on a remote island. According to one of the most acceptable versions, the shooting of the Soviet Western "Seventh Bullet" was taken at this place, for which several North American Mustangs were delivered. However, the master of special effects did not quite take on what the reaction of horses per shot can be strange, and they will run. So it happened … According to another version – until the middle of the last century, there was a large livestock farm on this lake. Somewhere in the 50s, the farm was recognized by unprofitable, and the cattle was ordered to transport to the mainland, but several horses escaped. Later they were wild and broke. But the fact remains a fact – there is no more such spectacle anywhere.
Another interesting feature of Manany is His Hud. For which the nickname was obtained "Gudil". We, unfortunately, did not hear Hood. Although it can be explained why – the reservoir buzzes at night. And we were in the evening, that is, it is too early. But local residents told that this natural phenomenon is not very nice for hearing and even causes fear. So we are not very upset.
But it is behind this good to the shores of the salty lake ride tourists. Clear business at night. At night, strong winds that constantly reign in this place, raise huge waves on the lake. These waves sometimes reach 12-15 meters in height. Their blows about the cloth coast and produced by the root heard across all surroundings. That the strangest – Lake Manch-Hordilo almost completely ceases to buzz. Because it seems that the lake is alive and he just likes the night "entertainment".
In general, Lake Manch literally shuttered with secrets and legends. Local tell that sometimes, during the strong storms, the wrecks of large old vessels are ejected to the rear of the reservoir, which once walked in full-flower manacle (river, not the lake) and which rest in the salty depths in the deposits of El and Clay. I was trigted if it really was, but did not find any mention of one such archaeological find. And some scientists, so directly declare – tales all this.
Fairy tales, fairy tales, but, again, according to local, the underwater wealth of Manany were interested in the Japanese. Apparently, reading the historical documents on the treasures of the caravans of the Silkogogo path, many of which remained in Rayne Gudyli, it was offered the three edges, through which the River Manumch, connecting with the same lake, cleaned the bottom of the reservoir, making it again shipping. For work asked small – pick up what they will find on the bottom. The Japanese refused, motivating the fact that the Nefig on the covers of our Motherland shake. Time will come – you will get.
In general, a very interesting reservoir is a lake Manch-Gudilo. Unusual for beauty, extraordinary history, extraordinary for legends and legends. So, you will pass by, make as we stop, enjoy the views and beauty, listen to the bikes of the locals, try the taste of salt water and. Write about it to the club "My planet". 🙂