Among the questions that readers sometimes ask us, from time to time it is also found "Is there internal passports in Korea?" I want to tell about it.
I must say that the system of registration of the population in different countries is very different. In the US, for example, as in most other Anglo-Saxon countries, identity cards – "Internal passports" – formally not at all. From the time of the government of these countries, however, try to introduce them, but these prompts always meet the decisive resistance of the population and end with nothing. It has historical reasons: in the old days in Europe (as, by the way, in Russia), the identity cards constantly carry, non-free people were able to constantly carry the identity cards – for example, those who went to the marks of serf. Therefore, many Western cultures have a resistant allergy to internal passports. However, in modern society, it is difficult to do without identification identity, and in reality there are such documents in the US. The role of identification certificate is carried out by the driver’s license, which in motorized America have almost everyone.
In Korea, a personality certificate system in its current form was introduced in May 1962, shortly after the military headed by General Pak Zhong Hee came to power in the country. They could not use the American system: partly because in the warring Korea needed much more strict control over the population, and partly because there was funny and talk about motorization in those days. In fact, the Government of Pak Chon Hee simply copied with minor changes to the Japanese system, which the generals themselves – in the past, Japanese officers – knew very well. The system Introduced then the system was subsequently not changed, and, by and large, retained to this day. We must admit that she, oddly enough, closer to the Russian-Soviet, than to the American.
In accordance with the Korean laws, any resident of the country upon reaching the age of 16 should contact the local administration, where he is issued a certificate of identity. Called it "Kukmin Tynok Chyn", that is "Registration certificate of a citizen". In essence, this is South Korean "Internal passport", Although the Russian / Soviet passport he externally appears very little. Korean identity card is a small rectangular card. This card is made from cardboard, and then sealed in transparent plastic (as they say, laminated). However, a couple of years ago, the Korean government decided to gradually replace these cards on the identity cards of the new sample, which look outwardly looks rather similar, but are made of plastic.
On the card there is a photo of the owner (always color), as well as its main biographical data. In fact, in the South Korean ID of the individual, the almost the same information is indicated as in the Soviet passport: the name, year and place of birth, the floor, the attitude towards military duty, and, finally, the registration.
Yes – registration! In Korea, there is a system of registration of the population at the place of residence, which is essentially different from our country "Registration", recently hypocritically renamed registration, but in essence – not changed. The only one (although very important) difference is that it is about registration in Korea. In case of changing the place of permanent residence, all Koreans are obliged to inform the authorities as soon as possible and pass their certificate in order for their new address. However, the authorities do not allow or prohibit anyone in a particular city in their choice. Does not exist in Korea and notorious "temporary registration". Seoul mayor’s office can not behave as, for example, the Moscow administration behaves, and turn "Seoul registration" In the privilege, in something like local citizenship. Anyone who came to Seoul and took off her housing, gets this registration automatically.
There are, however, in the Korean identity card and graphs, for us very unusual. For example, in the certificate card, a family is indicated, a member of which is a person, as well as the name of the head of this family. Indeed, in Korea "Head of Family" — these are not household, but quite official category. In recent years, this feature of Korean "passport system" causes all big criticism. Korean feminists saw in stock Graphs "Head of Family" The infringement of women’s rights, because the head of the family in most cases a man is considered, and the formal recognition of his special status emphasized the dependence of women from him. In general, many manifestations of the former legal inequality of men and women were eliminated in Korea. Relevant changes have also recently been also recently added to the Personality Certificates. In certificates of new sample graph "Head of the family" no more.
Until December 1997, all adult Koreans were obliged to always have this identity card with them. The reason for these precautions is understandable – the presence of an external threat from North Korea and, accordingly, the need to deal with North Korean agents. Although this requirement is about three years, as it does not work, most of the old habit are taken with themselves. In the end, a small card does not occupy a lot of space, and the plastic makes it very durable (much more durable to our passport).