Center Krakow or what to see in the old town
It is believed that acquaintance with the city is best to start from his center, and in the case of Krakow, for the first acquaintance of other options and can not be. Old Town (Stare Miasto W Krakowie) – the historic center of the city and its most beautiful part according to many guidebooks. To the old mest, it is customary to belong to the territory surrounded by a boulevard ring created on the site of the former fortress walls and the name of the planter, as well as Wawel Castle. In the center of Krakow, you can walk for a very long time and every time discover new places: cozy cafes, unusual museums, one art bunker what is worth. But today we will tell about the sights of the Old Town, which should see every tourist coming to Krakow.
Old Town in Krakow
One of the most popular routes in the center of Krakow is the Royal Road, which passes through the entire Old Town from the Square of Mateyo to the Wawel Castle.
Barbican in Krakow
One of the first attractions on the way of Kings – Barbakan. This is an unusual brick structure, once part of urban fortifications and, of course, was defensive. Barbakan was built during the reign of Yana I Olbracht in the late 90s of the fourteenth century.
Barbican in Krakow
The main task of Barbakana is the protection of the entrance to the city through the Florian gate with which he was connected by a large divorce bridge. Many urban legends are connected with this ancient building, one of which states that during the siege of the Russian fortress (June 22, 1768), the defenders ended the ammunition, then the bold and resourceful Martin Oratsev was charged instead of cores of silver buttons and Ivan Panin was fraught with a deadly blow, who commanded the troops of the enemy.
As a result, the Russians retreated, and this event resembles a memorable plate on the walls of Barbakan. Everything is nothing, but we didn’t just call this history of the legend, because according to historians’ research, there are no documentary evidence of these events. First, no document can accurately say that on June 22, 1768, Russian troops were held at the walls of Krakow, secondly, there were no confirmations that Ivan Panin. Most researchers converge in the opinion that Krakow’s assault headed Lieutenant Colonel side. But this does not least detract from the merit of Marcina Orateschi in front of his country – what’s the difference of whom and how this legendary Polish hero killed? &# 128578;
Now in Barbakan there is a branch of the historical Museum of Krakow, in which exhibitions are regularly held, as well as sports competitions for fencing and reconstruction of Polish balls.
Florian Gate and Tower
Directly opposite Barbakana are the only ancient gates of the city – Florian. The defensive walls around Krakow began to erect in the XIII century, and after the city became an unfair fortress, it was possible to get into it only through one of the seven gates. Naturally, all entrances and trips were guarded hard, and on the night and were aligned at all.
Florian gate in Krakow
Over the Florian gateway, the Tower of the same name is located, and there were 47 in the perimeter of the city wall of such towers. Tower construction date is considered to be 1307. The Florian Tower is impressed, and if the rest of the fortress towers were as impressive, it is very sorry that the Walls of Krakow have not been preserved to our times. Tower height – 34.5 meters. From the side of Barbakana, the facade decorates the coat of arms of the royal dynasty of the fives, which was installed in 1882 in place of the previous one.
Florian tower and white eagle on herb
From the Florian street, the tower decorates the bas-relief appeared in 1889 with the figure of St. Florian, who is considered the patron saint of Krakow and protects it from fires. On the second floor of the tower there is also a small chapel dedicated to the Holy.
Bas-relief on the Florian Tower
At the beginning of the XIX century, the fortress walls around Krakow were demolished, and today you can see only a small plot next to the Florian Gate.
Fortress Walls Krakow
Florian street in Krakow
Street that connects the only preserved gates of Krakow and the market square is also called Florian. It is rather short, only 335 meters, but it reflected all the epochs of the Life of Krakow. The first mentions of the street belong to the XIV century – it was then that her active development began. In 1881, an equestrian tram began on the street, and in 1901 an electric. But a very interesting story happened to him. The fact is that the rails were laid, the trams were purchased, and only then they found out that the combined rolling stock was not held in height in the Arch of the Florian Tower. Here’s how to master the urban budget! &# 128578;
Every house has its own story, and if you talk about each of them, then this article will never end. So, for example, there is a legendary cafe-confectionery "Yam Mikhalik" (ul. Florian, house 45). It became famous for the fact that they loved here (and still love) artists and architects. It has been working for more than 100 years and, according to many, confectionery and coffee are beautiful here, like a hundred years ago.
Florian street and facade cafe pit Mikhalika (left)
Museums on the Florian street is the house of Jan Matteyka (House 41) and the Pharmacology Museum (House 25). The oldest hotel of Krakow "Under Rose" is located, in which famous personality from all over the world, including the Russian emperor Alexander I.
Florian Street in Krakow
In Florian street, tourists usually reach the market and the Mariat Church, we have already told about Market Square, and about City Hall, Therefore, I will not repeat.
If immediately after you entered the city through the Gate of Florian, and turn right, then you will be one of the most popular Museums Krakow – Charter’s Museum. In 1796, in the Poland, which is located in the south-east of Poland, the first art museum in the country was founded. His founder was Isabella Charter, one of the secular lioness Poland of the late XVIII-early XIX centuries.
In 1878, her relatives founded the continuation of this museum, but already in Krakow. For this purpose, charter bought the building of the former urban arsenal built in 1565. The basis of the exposition is an extensive collection of art objects, dishes and weapons. But the main pearl collection is the famous picture of Leonardo da Vinci "Lady with Mornosta".
Charter’s Museum in Krakow
Lady with the ermine seemed to be descended from the famous canvase
Charter’s Museum is open daily, except Monday, from 10:00 to 17:00. Entrance to the Museum is paid, the price of a ticket 10 PLN ($ 2.5).
Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord in Krakow
At the intersection of the streets of Piyarskaya and St. Yana is the beautiful Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord. Once he was part of the Monastery of Piaristists, and now one of the chokes included in the list of monuments of Malopolsky Voivodeship. The church was built from 1718 to 1728 under the leadership of the Polish architect Casper Bazanka, who also became famous for his works in the Wawel Castle (Zegarovaya Tower Spire) and the restoration of the Chief Cathedral in Sandomira.
Facade of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord in Krakow
Parallel Florian street stretched out of St. Yana Street. Here tourists are much smaller, and there are almost no visitors to the cafe. But, nevertheless, here is not a house, then a historical monument with its history.
Church of Saints John the Baptist and John the Theologian
One of these monuments is the church of Saints John the Baptist and John the Bornov. The first mention of the temple in this place belongs to the distant 1308, but in the middle of the XVII century the church was completely rebuilt. In addition to the historical value of the building, tourists attracts a very beautiful facade with the image of the Mother of God, by which it is very difficult to pass and not take a picture.
Church of the saints of John the Baptist and John the Bogoslov in Krakow
Image of Our Lady on the facade of the church
We have already said that a walk through the old city of Krakow can delay for a few hours, because there is a huge number of museums, chosets, famous historical buildings, and also to look into interesting cafes, then you can spend all weekends.
Streets of the Old Town in Krakow
Unfortunately, we cannot tell about all the monuments of architecture in the center of Krakow, so from the Florian street we will move to the other end of the old city, to the street of St. Anne to admire the church of the same name and the famous collegium Maus.
Church of St. Anne in Krakow
History of the Church of St. Anne in Krakow takes its beginning in the distant XIV century – the first mentions about the wooden church in this place belong to 1363. It is known that in 1406 the church completely burned out during a strong fire, and a new church was built in his place, but in stone. And the funds for its construction allocated not anyone else, as the Polish king itself Vladislav II Yagailo.
At the beginning of the XV century, the church was transferred under the supervision of the Krakow Academy. In 1473, Yang from Kent was buried in it – very honored by the Polish Saint, who, as well as Florian, is considered one of the patrons of Krakow. After 1680 Yang was canonized, he became incredibly popular in the people. Pilgrims went from all over the country to visit its burial, as a result it was decided to carry the old temple and build a new.
Church of St. Anne in Krakow
The Church of the Krakow Academy was disassembled in 1689, at the same time a new church was laid, which was supposed to become a very similar to the Roman San Carlo-Ai-Katinari temple. But in the end, another project was approved, and the solemn of St. Anne’s church became the largest baroque church of Rome – Sant Andrea-Della-Valle. Already in 1703, the new church was consecrated, and by the end of the XVIII century, they got pretty spiers on the towers, which so resemble the spiers of the Wawel Castle.
Church of St. Anna
Next to the church is another famous landmark of Old Krakow – Collegium Maus.
Collegium Maus (Collegium Maius) is the University of Jagiellonian building in Krakow, one of the oldest higher educational institutions in Europe, founded in 1364 Casimir III. This building is highlighted among others by the oldest – funds for its construction were highlighted by the Polish king by Vladislav II Yagailo in 1400, and after 6 years, Yagailo gave money to the construction of the Church of St. Anne, which we wrote above.
The name of Collegium Maius means the "greatest board" and the building has been fixed after this building in the middle of the XV century. The building was repeatedly rebuilt and restored, and now there is a museum of the University of Yaghellonian.
The oldest casing of the University of Yagellon
The entrance to the museum is located on Yagellonskaya Street. If you believe the site, it works every day, but in 2012 due to the passing reconstruction to visit it failed.
Speaking about the Old Town It is impossible not to mention Krakow Plants – Ring of parks that surrounds the city center around the perimeter. This park ring appeared on the site of the former fortress walls, which surrounded the city from the XIII to the XVIII century. Part of the walls can be seen in the area of the Florian Tower, and if you read our article first, you had to see the walls. They were demolished by the decision of the Austrians (which Krakow got as a result of the section of the Commonwealth) in 1810-1814. The formal reason for the demolition was the poor condition of the walls and the threat of lives of citizens, but historians express other assumption. The fact is that the Austrians were very afraid that in the case of the Poles uprising, the latter will be able to hide in the fortress and for a long time to resist. Austrians comrades are rather strange, they demolished the walls and threw it all. As a result, almost five years on the site of the fortress were ruins, and only in 1819 it was decided to remove stones and break the park at this place.
Park zone around the old city, of course, loved to citizens, and today it is always crowded here, however, it is mostly tourists.
Tourists in Krakow
Church of St. Francis of Assis
Inside the old city there are several dozen chosets, each of which can be written a separate article, but only who will read them, besides us? &# 128578; Therefore, the last temple is today – the Church of St. Francisco Assis. This church attracted our attention to what was founded in the first half of the XIII century. The exact date of construction and the name of the one who became the founder remains a mystery. Most historians converge in the opinion that it was Polish Prince Boleslav V shameful and his spouse. But it is known for certain that the first restructuring and the expansion of the church occurred already in the 1260-1270s.
Church of St. Francis of Assis
Pilgrims come to the church, so that with their own eyes to see and bow the relics of the temple, among which the replica of the famous Turin shroud, the burial of Bolespy, and the tomb with the body of the St. Stula Krakow.
The old town in Krakow is impossible to imagine without the Wawel Castle, but we dedicated to him a separate article, so our today’s story we will complete the history of two unusual buildings located on the sub-street street. These buildings often fall into the lens of tourist photographs, as it opens an excellent look from Wawel, but they are quite rare about them.
Krakow Spiritual Seminary
The first seminary appeared in Krakow in 1602, but until 1901, seminarians lived and studied in the Vevelsky Castle, and only in 1899 it was decided to build a separate building. Two years later, a new seminary opened its doors for their students. By the way, the most famous graduate of the Krakow Seminary is Karol Putyla. Think that you do not know this person? We are confident in the opposite – this name belongs to 264 in the account of Pope – John Paul II. &# 128578;
Facade of Krakow Seminary
Yana Dlugosha’s house in Krakow
The facade of the second building attracts much less attention, but has a big story. In this house, a famous Polish chronicler and historian Yang Dlugosh lived in this house for 30 years. He is known for writing the history of Poland at twelve volumes, as well as the first introduced the term "yoke" against Mongol-Tatars who attacked Russia.
Yana Dlugosha’s house in Krakow
The house was built in the XV century and was originally royal baths. When Yang Dulgosh settled in the house (in 1450), he was rebuilt and another floor appeared. Now there is one of the buildings of the Papal Theological Academy.
Facade of the house Dlugosha
Instead of imprisonment
The old town in Krakow is one of the most interesting places in the city, you can walk around it by hours, and still every time you will find something new for yourself. We, for example, despite the fact that you were twice in Krakow, and did not visit the archaeological museum, although we really want to do it – just until it was enough for this time. If you walk through Krakow on foot, you can choose one of the excursion vehicles, and their choice is quite large.
We will definitely come to Krakow more than once in order to walk along the cozy streets in the center, look into the cafes (the name of one of them is "at the bladder" – does not give us peace for several years now), climb the observation platform of the Mariatsky Church, go to Archaeological Museum, and in other museums too. If you do not want to miss our stories about Krakow (and other cities and places), then subscribe to our news. See you and do not switch!