ladder Character

"The tunnel was close. Labor for breath. Lighting will not suited. Wow had to suffer", – recalled Nikolai Grube, a well-known German expert on Mayan culture. But now, when it is all over, you can tell with a smile of dark, heat, tiny lasers. that’s done. Together with the American Linda Scheele, a specialist for decoding characters, penetrated by Grube "acropolis" (Fortified part of) the city of Copan in modern-day Honduras and was rescued from oblivion one of the pages of the history of this ancient city-state, which lies in the south of the Mayan country.

hidden temple

The underground part of Copan is dotted with trenches and tunnels, like Swiss cheese – holes. Why does the same tormented Grube Dr. wading at the close underground tunnel? Then he needed a step ladder. Just one Staircases. She barely stood out the characters: while much destroyed inscription. It was to decipher. (In Mayan existed word-syllabic hieroglyphic writing, she is known for monuments of the first lawsuits pashas era existed before the ban on its Spanish church in the XVI Peck. Partially solved in 50-60 golah Soviet researchers Yu. V. Knorozov. – Approx. Red.)

The very same staircase was part of an ancient temple, which was located inside the other, huge building, hiding behind its massive walls – like a matryoshka doll in the other. About 1300 years ago the Maya builders carefully filled with sand and a small temple built over it a new cult pyramid – the archaeologists it is listed under the name "Temple 16". Do not be surprised that the Maya buried their old temple; many grand buildings of that era were built precisely on this principle: they erected over the old buildings, and today these buildings can be "cleaned like an onion".

We found the undercover monument until 1992. Honduran archaeologist Ricardo Agurchia examined "Temple 16". Workers, who helped him, for which a punched hole in one of the inner walls of the temple. formed hole. Getting out of the overhanging the tunnel, people saw a huge wall twelve meters high. It was the facade of an ancient temple. He shimmered blue, red, yellow colors. Scientists have dubbed this hidden structure of all "Pink and purple temple". The facade decorated the huge – a height of more than two meters – the mask of the Supreme Lady of Maya (depicted in the form of a bird).

Virtued numerous, perfectly preserved ornaments. Then it was discovered and the inscription on one of the steps of the front staircase "Pink-lilac temple". But read her archaeologists, of course, failed.

Selo and rubbing all day after a mysterious inscription. There was so closely in the tunnel that only one person could fit immediately before the step. "We worked in turn, and the one who worked, reported the results to another left behind him, and he already cited this information to the computer, which we dragged with them, and processed it", – remembers the stubble.

The work was long and tedious. I had to sink weakly-plates of hieroglyphs, illuminating them with a pocket lantern. Then scientists tried to correlate the sketched signs with already well-known hieroglyphs and tried to fill the obvious lacuna – damaged sections of the inscription. In the end, it was possible to disassemble these mysterious characters that staging that "Pink-purple temple" He was consecrated by the king named Tzik Balam, that is "Planned jaguar", In 557. NS. Maya’s names often seem strange. However, there are no mistakes here: the archaeologists recognized in these hieroglyphs the names at the time when the letter of Maya remained unsolved.

The records testified that the TCIC Balam also elevated his "Pink-purple temple" over another building – where, perhaps, the founder of the dynasty of the kopan kings was buried. As many as two centuries "Pink-purple temple" remained the sanctuary – on the standards of the standards is unusually long. This explains its archaeological value. By the way, digging the temple, archaeologists also acted very unusual. Cleaning "Pink-purple temple" from the land is filled with him, they did not make a disassembly hiding its outdoor building. The temple remained inside the temple – as if in the cave. Around it can be enveloped, it can be inspected from all sides. True, only specialists. And the weight of ordinary mortals can also admire the buried temple of Maya, going to a new museum, open in Copans. There, on the cast, made from the original, the temple is recreated with the striking accuracy – repeated and masks, and elements of the stucco ornament, decorated underground prototype.

Meanwhile, archaeologists continue to roll the subsoil "Temple-16". In 1996, they cleared the foundation "Pink-lilac temple". It turned out to be much wider than expected: 10 by 15 meters. Nearby, on this pedestal, two more small temple were built. By the way, already without a stucco ornament: all the decorations of the shedding of stone. Why Maya abandoned his traditional art? Over the course of several centuries, Maya was made of stucco decorations from a special plastic mass, which included gypsum, lime, sand and water. A lot of firewood went on limestone firing. "Ancient Maya is pretty soaked, they caused a huge environmental damage by pulling off the forests on an extensive territory. There are no single trees around large cities, forests transferred to firewood", – critically noticed the rough.

So, Maya could not decorate stucco even temples, built, apparently, at the same time "Pink-Lilov". It means that already in the VI century forests in the vicinity of Copan – in the valley spread here – were completely reduced. Thus, scientists managed to establish that at about this time in the Mayan country broke out an ecological catastrophe.

People die for jade

Political catastrophe occurred later – in two centuries. On April 29, 738, the ruler of the neighboring state of Kirigua was captivated by the thirteenth ruler of Kopan. With the top of the new ruler of the times of brilliant, lush reigns in Kopan ended. The defeat was all the more offensive that the mighty metropolis crushed her own vassal. About this date researchers also learned, decrypting ancient hieroglyphs.

And again – on the steps of the stairs. But a huge, specially built one of the rulers "Stairs of hieroglyphs". On her 56 steps is minted in stone All the history of Kopan kings. Here more than 2000 hieroglyphs. Some of them are already deciphered.

Ladder Character

. The history of Copan begins with the appearance of the royal dynasty here in 426. Yak to the ‘UK’ MO, sent by the ruler of the ancient Tikal, the city-state of Maya, for hundreds of kilometers from the capital to the depths of the jungle to search for new lands, wandered into the Copan Valley. Here he founded his dynasty – erected "Family Penates" and established the cult of the patron of his own family. This also reports the inscription carved on the stone.

Copan lay in a fertile river valley, where the peasants cultivated the centes, cultivated corn. The royal city quickly expanded. No wonder archaeologists dubbed him "Paris Maya": People flocked here from all surroundings. In many ways, the prosperity of the city ensured that its authorities controlled the major jade field in the Motagua Valley. For Maya, nephritis was more valuable than gold: masks and decorations made from it, admiring us today. However, the rulers of the town of Kirigua gradually increased. They were more in advance control of jade mining; In addition, the authorities of Kirigua kept in their hands and an important trading path. Painted to the Pacific Ocean.

In the end, as we already know, the rulers of Kiriguy still won. The victory of these vassals was praised by boastful altars and steles. Copan immediately turned into an ordinary, minor state. The era of sole governance in Copan has passed. One of the last kings of Copan Yak Paz, following the famous motto – "Share better power than head", – Gotate part of the royal authority to his own brothers, during the years of his rule, even representatives of the scribes – an unprecedented case! – began to install steles in their honor.

Such courage of the bottom did not just marked the crisis – she testified to the rapidly treasure decay of the Power. The river valley has long been built up with palaces and temples. Peasants, crushed corn, were pushed out on the slopes of the hills, now completely coated fields. Forest cut down. To top it off, it seems to be a religious split, sharply divided society.

The end of the history of the city is clearly documented. Stone Yak Pip sits on the altar opposite the last rule of Kopan – in Kit Tok’a. On the monument created in honor of the construction of the throne, the date is indicated: February 6, 822. This is the last date, which is in the history of Copan. On the back of the statue, the artist began cut out the relief, but he remained unfinished.

"The cause of a sudden catastrophe is a diagnosis of Nikolai Grub, "the epidemic could not be, most likely, the case in some social shocks – perhaps the uprising happened here. Undoubtedly, there was some rapid, violent junction. She laid an end to the kopan city kings dynasty".

Excavations in Kopan continue. In 1997, a message came about that under "Pink-lilac temple" Archaeologists found the most ancient temple. In it, by assumptions of scientists, the grave of the founder of the dynasty – Yak to the ‘UK’ MO. However, it was not easy to approach her: it turned out that the burial was filled to the edges of mercury.

And the weight, having to go to protective suits, scientists opened the gross grave with mercury. And again surprise: they found the remains of a woman, not a man. Perhaps this is the wife of the founder of the dynasty? Soon under her remains, a new burial was discovered. It was buried in him. Everything said that the deceased was very high honors. Perhaps the burial place was found to Kopana’s first king.

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