"Lake" and "Chelyuskin"
Epopeu on saving the crew of a ship "Chelyuskin" in 1934. Modern journalists call the first reality show. Indeed, it looks like a hundred people survive on the ice in the Chukchi Sea, among them women and even a newborn child, millions of observers who are measured in anticipation of the junction, and, finally, Heppi-end in the final. In the same year at the Film Festival in Venice will be shown a film-catastrophe "Chelyuskin", which had an incredible success. However, the world would never see the impressive shipwreck staff and the subsequent life of the camp on the ice, if it were not for photographers and film operators who walked fate by the polarists.
Paarboat "Chelyuskin" under the command of the polar captain in.AND. Voronina and Head of the expedition about.NS. Schmidt sailed from Leningrad on July 16, 1933. He was supposed to repeat the path of the icebreaker Alexander Sibiryakov, who passed the northern seaway for one navigation, and also deliver the polar explorers and builders to wintering on the island of Wrangel. However, the adventurous undertaking of the head of the head of the Schmidt chmidt ended on February 13, 1934, the feast of the steamer, weakly adapted for traveling in ice without icebreaker. Saved crew (only Zavoromet Mogilevich killed) I waited for help in the camp, broken on the ice floe in the Chukchi Sea. An indicative rescue operation, implemented by the seven Soviet pilots, turned a catastrophe in Triumph. Each of the Chelyuskintsev received the Order of Lenin, and the highest award – the hero of the Soviet Union was invented for pilot-rescuers.
Man with a movie machine
If in the 60s of the last century, Soviet children dreamed of being cosmonauts, then in the 30s, definitely – polar explorers and polar pilots. The young Soviet state truths and untrue sought to conquer the Arctic, and Soviet film operators – these historical events capture on the film. The most lucky brand Trojanovsky, who visited the polar expeditions four times, including on the icebreaker "Alexander Sibiryakov" and on the drifting station "North Pole-1". In swimming on "Chelyuskin" he went with his colleague Arkady Schaffran to remove the staff of the expedition for the newsreel: "Weave the Lazarent bathroom under the laboratory, the cabin on the right side of the laboratory. And here the cabin is banging a card: "Trojanovsky, Saffron – Soyuznokhronic"".
Mark perfectly knew about the specific difficulties of working in the polar expedition – to show the film under these conditions did not always work. When the whole team drinks salted tea, then highlight a glass of fresh water for the needs of the operator is impossible. At the same time, cases were known when the film, lainning without a manifestation, returned to his former virgin state, losing traces of the shot. On the "Chelyuskina" to handle the film did not come out – after a few days the hike was the main fresh tank was sunflower. If the water was not salty, then with an admixture of rust, because of what the samples after washing were covered with a thick raid. With the storage of the footage on the steamer, too, everything was not so simple – the operators had to open the portholes in the cabin and sit in the cold. In addition, it was necessary to develop a scenario plan depending on what will happen to the steamer – will he be reached by the Island of Wrangel to plan the researchers traveling to wintering, or his fate will work out differently. It was necessary to shoot so that the 4500 m films have enough for any option, and the film could be mounted from the footage.
By the way, do not forget that it was preparing through the Ice "Chelyuskin" with great difficulty, the whole team, including film operators and a photographer, helped tightly to the freeze vessel "Release". "These days are forgotten all specialty. Appeared new. There are demolitions, bagoshnikov, bumps and "Koni""," Wrote in his diary Trojanovsky. It was not possible to enter the life of the crew after the death of "Chelyuskin" – in October it became clear that the steamer could get stuck in a thorough, and therefore work in the specialty would not be all, and the fuel for heating should be saved. Shafran decided to stay, and Mark Trojanovsky and several more Chelyuskintsev went with chukchi on dog sledding to the nearest village of Wellen. February 13, when the steamer was rapidly plunged under the ice, it was Arkady Shaffran that he managed to fall out this moment. If it were not for his efficiency and professionalism, we would imagine this event exclusively for memoirs and drawings of the artist Fyodor Reshetnikova. Subsequently, the frames of Saffra will become cherry on the cake of the magic Soviet PR campaign, which made from the obvious failure of the dubious plan of Otto Julievich Schmidt heroic epic. Newspaper notes on how the spirit of courageous Chelyuskins do not fall, were visually illustrated, and the whole world saw the heroes make charging, washped with snow and listen to lectures.
15,000 frames of the photographer Novitsky
Contemporaries and descendants saw the Chelyuskin Epopeus in all details the eyes of the photographer Pavel Novitsky. And if the movie Shafran and Trojanovsky criticized for "smoothness", they say, many difficulties look too easy in it, then the Novitsky managed to capture the life of the Schmidt camps with all its difficulties and unpleasant surprises like the ice break under the Barak.
Two months on the ice plant, Novitsky removed without a break, despite the fact that every day was extremely cold, the temperature on average did not rise above -30 ° C. It was impossible to shoot in gloves, and no more than two-three pictures were able to do without gloves. At the same time, on other days, the photographer was able to comply with up to 300 frames, such as, for example, on March 5, when Lyapidevsky’s pilot evacuated women and children to the mainland. By the way, the moment of death of Pavel Ivanovich could not focus – "Lake" frozen and did not work. In addition, it was necessary to evacuate the fur things and the equipment of the Radrute Krenkel with the "Chelyuskina", so his photographic Skarb Novitsky saved last.
Without trusting my own memory, he did not release the camera out of her hands and in a dream, and then recalled: "If I was woken at night, I would jump out of the bag so that three would hang on me "Luckies" And on the left hand would hang out the captured filmed material ". "The restless, driving, a small fat man everywhere," said the pilot of the kamanin about Novitik.
The fact that the film can end, bothered a photographer more than the possible exhaustion of food reserves. Since the release of "Chelyuskin" from Leningrad and to the triumphant arrival in Moscow, Novitsky filmed 500 m of a negative film, that is, about 15,000 pictures. True, due to the defective film, the fifth part of the material was lost.
By the way, except for a professional, the camp shot a few more amateurs photographers. With the navigator-navigator of one of the rescue aircraft Shellyganov, a trouble happened. Khabarovsk photographer who met Chelyuskintsev in the Chukotka village Vankarem, promised to quickly show and print his pictures, and then return. Naturally, after receiving a coil with a valuable film, the photographer evaporated.
"The most common apparatus – "Watering can" – In general, I justified myself, "Schmidt wrote on the results of the expedition for the" Soviet photo ". As is known, the Soviet photo pipe industry in 1934 will copy the German "Luck-II" and "FED" will appear in Kharkov (Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky).
For "Chelyuskin" Novitsky took with him three "watering" just in case and a camera with a large signs of Playbell Makina. True, the latter had to be slightly finalized to possibly remove qualitatively in Arctic conditions. In order for the shutter at -30 ° C to work, the camera was insulated with the heating plates of the Japanese military sample, working through the burning of cartridges filled with a slowly burning coal mixture. Sorry, but at the most responsible moment – the death of the steamer – the adaptation of the photographer did not help.
A diverse optics from the telephoto setup to the wide-roller, three types of film for different conditions of shooting for "watering cannons" and photoplasties for "Makina", domestic light filters and foreign chemicals: all the best – to the Arctic. With himself, Novitsky always had two "watering cans" so that each plot to shoot with two devices, on two different films, different lenses. Understanding that in the case of wintering, electric loving will be turned off, Pavel Ivanovich captured with marked magnesium ampoules – magnesium flash used photographers of the beginning of the century. After the salvation, Novitsky has not thought about the mainland, his camera will work or not, whether the film will be enough, – in two months the way by train from Kamchatka to Moscow, it was necessary to fix the name of each settlement in the film, where the Chelyuskintsev met with flowers and flashes.