Language in the Czech Republic
Czech (&# 269; E&# 353; Tina, &# 269; ESK&# 253; Jazyk) in the brightest extent reflects the rich and difficult historical heritage of the country. As such he originated in the X century of our era, "Boning" from the group of West Slavic languages, in the modern form was formed only at the end of the XVIII century. And even in the XIX century, only 15% of the country’s population spoke on Czech, since many settlements of Bohemia were very Germanized, and the general policies of the Austro-Hungarian empire did not contribute to the maintenance of national traditions. Even the Slavic writing on the basis of Cyrillic, essentially formed here, was not accepted on a national scale, and the Czechs still write to Latin with the use of a large number of diacritical signs ("Gachekov" for hissing and soft sounds and "Chall" To indicate the longitude of vowels), promoting the transmission of the specifics of the local adverb. At the same time, the main standards of the Latin transliteration Cyrillic are generally built on the Czech language system.
Czech, like Slovak close to him, is considered one of the most archaic, heavily preserved many features of a single Praslava language. Many borrowing from European languages, easy to fit with us, in the Czech Republic are completely unknown and to designate neologisms here continue to be used "National words". Therefore, it is not worth sharing the common closeness of Russian and Czech languages - in reality they are quite different, especially for rumors.
The flexibility of the Czech language in combination with its strong historical traditions led to the formation of a very interesting and diverse language environment, which combines many (from 3 to 16 by different classifications) dialects and a clear general literary basis.
Emphasis is usually fixed on the first syllable and is not associated with the longitude of the sound, and it may even be put on consonant sounds, which is rather unusual for a Russian person. And vowels are pronounced clear, so the syllables sound like separately. At the same time, there are many words and even phrases where there is no single vowel sound, which causes many mistakes in perception and pronunciation. Usually in this case there is an unclear sound between consonants, which resembles a very short Russian, but depending on the dialect and there may be differences in pronunciation. At the same time, Czech y, depending on the presence or absence "Charm", may sound completely different and radically change the essence of the word (DRAH ; – "expensive", But Dr ; HA – "Doro&# 769; ha").
As in Russian, nouns here have a clear genus – male, female or medium – and inclined by a similar principle. Moreover, this applies not only to common words, but also last names, though somewhat unusual – Mrs. Vorachova is a wife’s wife with the surname Vorach, and Myierova – Mayer. Also, foreign surnames are also inclined, even Anglo-Saxon, why they sometimes acquire a very unusual sound.
In the period of Czech Republic, the Russian language was taught as a mandatory subject in schools. And, oddly enough, most of the older cheeks speak Russian well, but for one reason or another it is very rarely used by this skill in communication. Now in schools most prefers to learn English or still widespread German wide in the country, but some simple questions, such as clarifying the road, here it is quite possible to solve "Great and Mighty", Although with some difficulty.
It is not necessary to show an excessive sense of humor about the sound of local speech. It is no secret that many Czech words for the Russian ear sound very darling (the simplest examples: "Vonovka"- perfume, "Lahudka" – delicacy, "Best protection" – Fresh products), but the Czechs themselves clearly do not share the fun of foreigners for this reason and often can be completely reasonable "send" where far away. It is easy to guess that there are quite a few words and surnames in Russian, funny for Cech, but they do not brave it, unlike some of our compatriots.
Interestingly, the Czech time is displayed in the usual format: 11:30 – this is half the twelfth, and 11:15 – a quarter of the twelfth, and the parts of the day are quite familiar: R ; No – Early morning, Dopoledne – Morning until noon, Odpoledne – day and vecer – evening, and there are no clear boundaries. It is constantly confusing guests from Western Europe, but quite understandable to a Russian person.
Toponymics and orienteering
It should be noted that Czech-Russian practical transcription does not always coincide with the real pronunciation – for example, the usual "translation" L B "L" or "L", either y as "and" or "NS" Depending on the position in the word, the Czechs themselves completely unknown. Some difficulties cause and &# 345;, which, depending on the place, sounds like "RJ", then "RSH" (after the deaf consonants, and they are very difficult to allocate them in local speech). Hence, a large number of discrepancies in the Russian transcription of local toponyms – the edge of Vysochina, for example, Ideally sounds like "Tysocin", River Vltava – "Maltava", And Karlovy Vary usually would be more correct to pronounce "Karlovy Var". However, the Czechs themselves do not see special problems in such "Fluctuations" and perceive foreigners with understanding.
In tourist offices, almost all settlements offer guests dozens, if not hundreds of types of cards and guidebooks, including in Russian. They do not shine with particular accuracy, especially in the transcription of toponyms, however, you can always "Show on fingers" the right place and ask the way to it.